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Basic of strings

A string is a continuous sequence of characters terminated by '\0', the null character. The length of a string is considered to be the number of characters excluding the terminating null character. There is no string type in C, and consequently there are no operators that accept strings as operands.

Instead, strings are stored in arrays whose elements have the type char or wchar_t. Strings of wide characters that is, characters of the type wchar_tare also called wide strings . The C standard library provides numerous functions to perform basic operations on strings, such as comparing, copying, and concatenating them.

Declarations and uses of strings

You can initialize arrays of char or wchar_t using string literals. For example, the following two array definitions are equivalent:

char str1[30] = "Let's go"; // String length: 8; array length: 30.char str1[30] = { 'L', 'e', 't', '\'', 's',' ', 'g', 'o', '\0' };

An array holding a string must always be at least one element longer than the string length to accommodate the terminating null character. Thus the array str1 can store strings up to a maximum length of 29. It would be a mistake to define the array with length 8 rather than 30, because then it wouldn't contain the terminating null character.

If you define a character array without an explicit length and initialize it with a string literal, the array created is one element longer than the string length. An Example

char str2[ ] = " to London!";// String length: 11 (note leading space);// array length: 12.

The following statement uses the standard function strcat() to append the string in str2 to the string in str1. The array str1 must be large enough to hold all the characters in the concatenated string.

#include<string.h>char str1[30] = "Let's go";char str2[ ] = " to London!";/* ... */ strcat( str1, str2 );puts( str1 );

The output printed by the puts() call is the new content of the array str1:

Let's go to London!

The names str1 and str2 are pointers to the first character of the string stored in each array. Such a pointer is called a pointer to a string , or a string pointer for short. String manipulation functions such as strcat() and puts() receive the beginning addresses of strings as their arguments. Such functions generally process a string character by character until they reach the terminator, '\0'. The function in is one possible implementation of the standard function strcat() . It uses pointers to step through the strings referenced by its arguments.

Built-in functions for character and string processing

Character processing functions

The standard library provides a number of functions to classify characters and to perform conversions on them. The header ctype.h declares such functions for byte characters, with character codes from 0 to 255.

The results of these functions, except for isdigit() and isxdigit() , depends on the current locale setting for the locale category LC_CTYPE. You can query or change the locale using the setlocale() function.

Character classification functions

The functions listed in [link] test whether a character belongs to a certain category. Their return value is nonzero, or true, if the argument is a character code in the given category.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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