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Still unconquered, the Vandals controlled western Sicily and Sardinia as part of their north African kingdom throughout the remainder of the century.

Central europe (see also turkey, the balkans and italy)


"Germanic" is a designation of a great many tribes who spoke related Germanic languages. Several, such as the Saxons, East Franks and Alemanni eventually settled in the region between the Alps and the North Sea, the Rhine and the Bohemian mountains and their languages gradually evolved into modern German. Others, settling in Scandinavia, England and along the channel laid the foundation for such modern languages as Swedish, Norwegian, English and Dutch. Germany, in this 5th century, was a sea of slowly changing and migrating people. The Huns were pushing in from the east, driving a Slavic people before them who settled in what is now eastern Germany, as Wends and Poles. The Huns themselves veered to the south through what later became Austria-Hungary and then pushed on into Bavaria and to the Rhine, engaging in a tremendous battle with Romanized Visigoths at Troyes in 451. The effect of these migrations and raids was to push the original Germanic tribes west and south with the Vandals, Suevi and Alani ending up in Spain. The Huns decimated the Burgundians with the remnants settling as "federates" near Geneva. (Ref. 177 , 180 , 137 )

By the last of the century, the Franks were well established on both sides of the Rhine in a large area including parts of both modern France and Germany. In 481 Clovis became king of all the Franks and formed the first of the large, central European monarchies. When he adopted Christianity about A.D. 500 his western Frankish followers readily joined his conversion, but east of the Rhine there was not a pre-existing local Christian population and the Rhenish Franks remained pagan. At this same time the Marcomanni left Bohemia and invaded Bavaria. (Ref. 177 , 180 , 222 )


For awhile Austria was on the march route of the Huns and we shall discuss these people more in detail later. After Odoacer (See ITALY above) annihilated the Rugier tribe in 488 the Lombards moved down into northern Austria and southern Moravia. Vindo- bona (Vienna) remained as a fortress and apparent sanctuary to all of Celtic-Roman descent. Rome had completely withdrawn from the Danube area by 488 and the vacuum was filled by the Huns. (Ref. 181 )


By 406 the Huns were in eastern Hungary with Ostrogoths just to their west and Lombards and Rugiers in the Czech area just northwest. At this time Uldin was ruler of the Huns in Romania and after making an alliance with Stilicho in 406 together they defeated a wave of Goths invading Venetia and Lombardy, with the captives taken to be sold later into slavery. There were no Alans in Hungary after about this date and thereafter the Huns dominated the area. Very little is known about them in the 2nd decade except that they had a King Charaton who received gifts from Honorius of the Roman Empire. The climax of Hunnic power came after 420 but in 427 they were attacked by Romans and some were conquered so that as a people they lost cohesion and had no central authority. By 432 Ruga was king of some of the Huns, but his exact territory is unknown. The East Romans waged war against him until his death in the late 430s. The Huns then had two kings - Bleda in the east and Attila in the west. These men were apparently brothers and their forces together broke into Illyrium in 441. In 445 Attila murdered his brother, however, and became the sole ruler. Four years later he met with East Roman ambassadors just over the Illyrium border on Italian soil and Attila was made a "military magistrate" and given land along the Sava and a yearly salary. In spite of this he raided Italy in 452 after a relatively unsuccessful invasion of Gaul the year before. He was bought off before he crossed the Po, but Milan was taken and much booty found. Disease was probably a big factor in preventing further forays. Attila died in 453 and while his sons were quarreling over the estate a coalition of German tribes led by Ardaric, king of the Gepids, revolted against their overlords and after several battles, defeated the Huns at Nedao River

This river was apparently in southern Pannonia (Hungary), south and west of the Danube
, with allegedly some 30,000 Huns slain, including Ellac, Attila's oldest son. Thus ended the height of the Hun power and although they made a few more raids of the Eastern Empire, they finally returned to the Russian steppe about 470 and settled on the shores of the Sea of Azov. At about 444 Attila had been the most powerful man in Europe and a contemporary of Valentian in Rome and Theodosius II of Constantinople. He was not entirely a savage but actually had some sense of honor and justice, in spite of the fact that his men at times did pillage and ravage and that he murdered his own brother. Such atrocities as the latter, however, were common among all ruling families of that time and even much later, in history. (Ref. 137 , 38 , 127 )

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
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I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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