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Mendeleev arranged the elements in the Periodic Table in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows so that elements with similar properties recur periodically (another words they fall directly beneath each other in the Table). The elements in a given vertical column are referred to as a family or group. The physical and chemical properties of the elements in a given family change gradually as one goes from one element in the column to the next. By observing the trends in properties, the elements can be arranged in the order in which they appear in the Periodic Table.


I. activity series

Part 1: reactions of metals with water

CAUTION: Sodium and potassium react very rapidly with water to evolve hydrogen and heat. This is potentially dangerous because of the possibility of the violent explosive reaction of H 2 (g) with O 2 (g) present in the air. Both sodium and potassium cause severe chemical burns when it comes into contact with the skin.

CAUTION: H 2 is flammable.

Demo : The reactions of sodium and potassium with water will be demonstrated for you. Observe the rate of evolution of H 2 gas as a tiny piece of sodium or potassium is placed in a 500-mL beaker full of deionized water. Record your observations on your report form and write a balanced equation for these reactions.

  1.  Place 5 mL H 2 O (cold water should be used for Cu, Zn and Ca and warm water should be used with Mg) in each of four clean test tubes and place them in a test tube rack. Label them as follows:
A. Mg
B. Cu
C. Zn
D. Ca
  1. Place several small pieces of Mg, Cu, and Zn in the correctly labeled test tube prepared above. Place two or three pieces of Ca turnings in the test tube labeled "Ca".
  2. Watch for evidence of reaction by noting evolution of gas bubbles and any change in the color or size of the metal. Be patient, some reactions may be slow! Record your observations and write net ionic equations for each reaction.
  3. Discard the Ca and water in the Ca recovery beaker . Decant the water out of the test tubes containing Mg, Cu, and Zn and leave the pieces of metal that remain unreacted in each test tube.

Note: Trapped air bubbles on the metal surfaces are not indicative of a reaction.

Note: Net ionic equations must balance in mass (atoms) and in total charge on each side of the equation.

Part 2: reactions of metals with hcl

Caution: this part of the procedure must be done in a fume hood!!

CAUTION: Some of the test tubes may become very hot. Leave them in the test-tube rack while you are making observations.

  1. Place the three remaining test tubes in a test tube rack. There should be only three test tubes remaining.
  2. Add 2 mL of 3 M HCl solution to each test tube.
  3. Observe the relative rate of H­ 2 gas evolution for up to 5 minutes and record your observations on your report form.
  4. Based on the observations in the previous steps, list the elements that react in 3M HCl in order of increasing strength as reducing agents and write net ionic equations for all reactions.

Part 3: reactions of metals with other metal ions  

Note: it would be helpful to draw a diagram to remember where the drops are on the sheet of metal before you begin.


  1. Place a clean 1 inch-square of metal foil (sheet) of each of these metals Cu, Zn and Pb on a flat surface.
  2. Clean one side of the metal surface by sanding it with fine sandpaper or steel wool.
  3. Place one or two drops in spots of each of these solutions in a clockwise order on the metal surfaces:
A. 0.5 M Ag +
B. 0.5 M Cu 2+
C. 0.5 M Zn 2+
D. 0.5 M Pb 2+

  NOTE: Do not test a metal with a solution of the same metal ion, such as Cu metal with Cu 2+ ion.

  1. Watch for color changes in each spot as evidence of reaction. If you are not sure whether the reaction has occurred, rinse the plate with water. A distinct spot of a different color on the surface is good evidence for the reaction.
  2. Write net ionic equations for each reaction. Arrange Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in order of their increasing strength as reducing agents. If a metal A reacts with a cation of another metal B , metal A is a stronger reducing agent, more reactive than metal B .
  3. Rinse and dry each square of metal and return it to the correct beaker on the reagent shelf for other students to use.

Part 4: flame tests

This station will be located inside a fume hood


  • 0.5 M Solutions of dissolved chloride salts of: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Ba, Cu, Pb, Fe(II), and Fe(III), Sr (nitrate salt)
  • Wooden splints, one per each solution
  • Bunsen burner/clicker
  • 1M HCl
  • For each solution, take the splint out of the beaker and pass is through the flame of the Bunsen burner, remembering that the hottest part of the flame is the blue section in the center. Do not leave the splint in the flame too long as it will eventually catch on fire.
  • Replace the splint in the same beaker from which it came.
  • On your report form, record the color of the flame of each metal.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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