<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Discussion: Which of the four styles listed above best describe your style? Why? Refer back to Table 1 to help explain your answer.

Activity: Utilizing Table 3, identify the most likely type of learning style(s) you have by examining your answer to the above discussion. Reflect on the types of strategies that best reflect your style.

Case study: self-reflection and professional development

By identifying how adults learn, administrators are better able to arrange approaches to meet the learning styles of those they lead and arrange for professional development in their respective school settings. This insight will serve us well when we are seeking by-in for new multi-media applications that will improve management aspects of the workplace and especially student success for all. Focus on a professional development situation in which you were a learner: a situation in which you were asked to learn a new concept. What was the concept? What was the setting in which you were to learn?

Discussion: In a group, discuss how you as the learner would respond to the following questions.

  • How key was attention to the learning and the act of learning?
  • What optimized your attention?
  • What maintained your attention?
  • What role did peer or personal motivation play?
  • How much control as the learner did you have? Was it enough?
  • How much did interest or need affect (your) learning? 

Activity: Now plan a professional development activity by focusing on the following issues:

  • How key is maintaining the attention of the learner in the act of learning?
  • What would you do to optimize attention?
  • What would you do to maintain attention?
  • What role does peer or personal motivation play?
  • How much control for the learner do you think is necessary?
  • How much does interest or need of the learner affect your training? 

Web resources

Adult Education Quarterly, (External Link)

Adult Learning, (External Link)

Adult Learning Activities, California Distance Learning Project (External Link)

Community Partnerships for Adult Learning , U.S. Department of Education, (External Link)

Educational Technology Clearing House, (External Link)

How Adults Learn, (External Link)

ISTE: International Society for Technology in Education (External Link)

Mentor Information and Materials, (External Link)

Iowa’s Professional Development Model (External Link)

Teaching Tips Index, (External Link)

The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Technology , http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/index.html


  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Bayard, J.P.&Papa, R. (2003). One learning model. Sacramento, CA: Center for Teaching and Learning.
  • Bloom, B.S. (1965). Taxonomy of educational objectives. London, UK: Longman.
  • Brown, R. (1990). The construct and concurrent validity of the social dimension of the Brown locus of control scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50, 377-382. Note: In-class Hand-out.
  • Brown, R.&Marcoulides, G.A. (October, 1996). A cross-cultural comparison of the Brown locus of control scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 5, 858-863. (External Link)
  • Bruner, J.S. (1983). In search of mind: Essays in autobiography. New York, NY: Harper&Row.
  • Cronbach, L.&Snot, R. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions . New York, NY: Irvington.
  • Cross, K.P. (1981). Adults as learners: Increasing participation and facilitating learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Macmillan.
  • Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle . Psychological Issues , 1 , 1.
  • Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
  • Felder, R. (1993). Reaching the second tier: Learning and teaching styles in college science education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 23 (5), 286-290. Retrieved December 2000, from (External Link) .
  • Felder, R. (1996). Matters of style. ASEE Prism, 6 (4), 18-23. Retrieved December 2000, from (External Link) .
  • Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences . New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century , New York: Basic Books.
  • Gardner, H. (1999). The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts And Standardized Tests, The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves , New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Gardner, H. (2006). The development and education of the mind: The selected works of Howard Gardner. London, UK: Routledge.
  • Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  • Glasser, W. (1990). The quality school . New York, NY: Harper&Row.
  • Gregorc, A.,&Butler, K. (1984, April). Learning is a matter of style. VocEd , 27-29.
  • Guilford, J.P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5 , 444-454.
  • Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.
  • Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. New York, NY: Association Press.
  • Knowles, M.S. (1990). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston, TX: Gulf.
  • Lave, J.&Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Levinson, D.J. (1978). The s eason’s of a man’s life. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Levinson, D. J.,&Levinson, J. D. (1996). The seasons of a woman's life . New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • McCarthy, B. (2006). The 4-MAT system: Teaching to learning styles with right/left mode techniques . Retrieved on September 9, 2006 from: (External Link)
  • Papa-Lewis, R. (1983). The mentoring relationship between major advisors and doctoral degree advisees. Dissertation Abstracts.
  • Papa-Lewis, R. (1987). The relationship of selected variables to mentoring in doctoral level education. International Journal of Mentoring, 1 (1), 22-26.
  • Papa, R. (2002a). The art of mentoring. Sacramento, CA: Center for Teaching and Learning.
  • Papa, R. (2002b). How we learn. Sacramento, CA: Center for Teaching and Learning.
  • Papa, R. (2004, October). Social studies and elementary education: An annotated review of literature. New York, NY: Macmillan McGraw-Hill, Publishers.
  • Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget’s theory. In P. Mussen (ed) Handbook of child psychology, 1 . New York, NY: Wiley, 1983.
  • Rogers, A. (2002). Teaching adults, 3 rd ed. London, UK: Open University Press.
  • Rogers, J. (2004). Adult learning, 4 th ed. London, UK: Open University Press.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York, NY: Random House, Inc.
  • Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Watson, J. (1928). The ways of behaviorism . New York, NY: Harper&Brothers Pub.
  • Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership' conversation and receive update notifications?