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Healthcare professionals in laboratories are reluctant to release data because of cost and also because they lose some control over the data they have produced. An alternative is for clients to query databases of the pathology laboratories. A grid, federating the laboratories, would provide a secure framework enabling the screening associations to query databases and fill their local patient files (De Vlieger et al. 2009). No action is required by physicians to put their data on the network. Thanks to the grid security architecture, the cytopathologists are able to define and modify the access rights of the users querying their data.

Several projects in Europe have studied or are currently exploring the advantages of grid technology with regard to breast cancer, particularly computer-aided diagnosis of mammograms, most notably the e-Diamond (Brady et al. 2003 ) and MammoGrid (Warren et al. 2007) projects. If a sentinel network is able to federate pathology databases, it can be used by the epidemiological services of the National Institute for Health Surveillance (Institut National de Veille Sanitaire) and the regional epidemiological observatory. In the present case, it means that women could consult their own data in the pathology laboratories as well as see mammographic images stored in the radiology services through the proposed network. A cancer surveillance network is presently being implemented in the Auvergne region in France within the framework of the AuverGrid regional grid initiative (http://www.auvergrid.fr). It uses grid technology developed by EGEE, such as the AMGA metadata catalogue (Koblitz, Santos and Pose 2008) and the MDM Medical Data Manager (Montagnat et al. 2006), as well as by the Health-e-Child project, for example, the Pandora Gateway (http://www.health-e-child.org).

Case study 2 - application in radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is one of the three major treatments for cancer. It has demonstrated its efficacy in curing cancer and is also the most cost effective strategy. From a technology point of view, radiotherapy is a highly complex procedure, involving many computational operations for data gathering, processing and control. The treatment process requires large amounts of data from different sources that vary in nature (physics, mathematics, biostatistics, biology and medicine), which makes it an ideal candidate for healthgrid applications. Nowadays, in radiotherapy and brachytherapy, commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) use an analytical calculation to determine dose distributions near the tumor and organs at risk. Such codes are very fast (execution time below one minute to give the dose distribution of a treatment), which makes them suitable for use in medical centres.

For some specific treatments using very thin pencil beams (IMRT) and/or in the presence of heterogeneous tissues such as the air-tissue, lung-tissue and bonetissue interfaces, it appears that Monte Carlo simulations are the best way to compute complex cancer treatment by keeping errors in the dose calculation below 2%. The accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation is excellent, provided that the computing power is sufficient to allow for extreme reduction of statistical noise. In order to finish MC computations within an acceptable time period for interactive use, parallel computing over very many CPUs has to be available. In this way, MC dose computations could become standard for radiotherapy quality assurance, planning and plan optimisation years before individual departments could afford local investment that is able to support MC. With the objective of making Monte Carlo dose computations the standard method for radiotherapy quality assurance, planning and plan optimisation, we are participating in the development of a Monte Carlo platform dedicated to SPECT, TEP, radiotherapy and brachytherapy simulations together with 21 other research laboratories which are involved in the international collaboration OpenGATE (http://www. opengatecollaboration.org, Jan et al. 2004). This GATE software with its accuracy and flexibility was made available to the public in 2004 and now has a community of over 1000 users worldwide.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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