# 1.14 To describe and illustrate different cultures' ways of writing

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## Memorandum

1.1 xi

1.2 xv

1.3 watches

2.

2.1 XLII

2.2 XCIX

2.3 MMDL

3.

3.1 608

3.2 65

3.3 3 257

4. Will differ from year to year

## Brain teaser

1. Move “minus” to just before “x” so that sum reads 1 x 1 = 1

2. Take one away from = and add to – so that sum reads 1 = 111 – 11

Leaner Section

## Activity: to describe and illustrate different cultures' ways of writing [lo 1.2]

• Can you deduce from this how the Romans would have written 11?

_____________________________________________________________________

1.2 How would they have written 15?

_____________________________________________________________________

1.3 Where are these Roman numerals still used nowadays?

_____________________________________________________________________

• Look carefully at the following:
 We: 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 The Romans: X XX XXX XL L LX LXX LXXX XC C We: 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 The Romans: C CC CCC CD D DC DCC DCCC CM M

2. Use the information given above and calculate the following.

• 40 + 2 ________________________________________________________

2.2 90 + 9 ________________________________________________________

2.3 2 000 + 500 + 50 _______________________________________________

3. You have just practised writing like the Romans. Below are more examples of how they would write certain numbers. Can you write them in ordinary (our) numbers?

3.1 DCVIII ________________________________________________________

3.2 LXV ________________________________________________________

3.3 MMMCCLVII __________________________________________________

4. Write our present date in Roman numerals.

BRAIN TEASER

The matches below have been set out in Roman numerals, but the answers are incorrect. Can you “fix” each sum, so that the answer is correct, by moving only ONE match?

TIME FOR SELF-ASSESSMENT

Evaluate yourself on a scale of 1 - 4 by just drawing a circle around the figure that is true about yourself.

 I can Not at all Some-times Most of the time Always Use the constant function of my pocket calculator for repeated addition 1 2 3 4 Write down Roman numerals for our numbers 1 2 3 4 Add and give the answer in Roman numerals 1 2 3 4 Write Roman numerals in ordinary numbers 1 2 3 4

However, the Roman counting system gets very complicated. The decimal system (OR METRIC SYSTEM) that we use is more practical. Let us consider the different ways in which we can add.

DO YOU REMEMBER?

• The answer of an addition sum is called the SUM OF THE TWO NUMBERS.
• The INVERSE (reverse) calculation of addition is SUBTRACTION.

DID YOU KNOW?

The order in which numbers are added makes no difference to the answer.

 For example: 5 + 4 = 4 + 5 9 = 9
 As well as: (16 + 14) + 12 = 16 + (14 + 12) 30 + 12 = 16 + 26 42 = 42

## Assessment

Learning Outcome 1: The learner will be able to recognise, describe and represent numbers and their relationships, and to count, estimate, calculate and check with competence and confidence in solving problems.

Assessment Standard 1.2: We know this when the learner describes and illustrates various ways of writing numbers in different cultures (including local) throughout history.

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