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Developing the capacity to teach more effectively, to present information and gather data about student learning is becoming the norm in higher education. It is essential that faculty know how and when to best apply effective strategies in the instructional program and to understand that these strategies can be used both in designing original lessons and as interventions when other strategies are less successful.

Understand the adult learner

Knowledge about the adult learner is essential. “An understanding of the principles of adult learning is part of being effective” (Lieb, 1991). The knowledge and skill students are expected to learn must be delivered within the frame of adult learning. Professors need to recognize that elements of respect and relevancy provide an environment where adults learn best (Lieb,1991). There is little chance that academic work will become a part of the lifelong experience for the adult if the “special needs and requirements” (Lieb, 1991) are not part of the teaching and learning process. According to Lieb, there are four critical elements of learning—motivation, reinforcement, retention and transference—that must be addressed to maximize adult learning. Effective instructional practice grounded in knowledge of adult learners often leads to comprehension of a few general principles with a thorough grounding in the application and process to a variety of concrete details. Such an approach helps students to remember how to apply the key principles to immediate circumstances. It is as important to acknowledge that adult learning theory and principles are very operative in higher education. Zemke&Zemke (1984) wrote that the knowledge about adult learning might be divided into three basic divisions: (1) things we know about adult learners and their motivation, (2) things we know about designing a curriculum for adults, (3) and things we know about working with adults in the classroom.

Identifying success competencies needed for professional leadership is also critical. An established a set of competencies that identifies the skills of successful leaders in an educational setting is reflected in the work of Eichinger et al. ( 2003). The Education Competency Wheel is a graphic representation of six factors that, when incorporated into the adult leadership skill set, create a greater opportunity for success in one’s professional career and for becoming an integral member of a work team. Completion of a degree in educational leadership from an accredited university will prepare the student in competencies anchored in the six factors of courage, results, operating skills, strategic skills, individual excellence, and organizational skills.

Blended learning

Blended Learning is another format that can be used to strengthen instructional effectiveness. The Virtual Professor (Dec, 2004) reports that faculty have experienced positive effects in their classroom instruction when using online teaching strategies. Faculty use technology in numerous ways: Power Point presentations, course web pages, web-based courses and integrating the use of computers into the classroom. The Foundation Coalition, one of eight engineering coalitions funded by the National Science Foundation—an organization committed to improving curricular and instructional effectiveness in higher education—suggests placing the technologies in the hands of students on a routine basis to facilitate learning, change learning outcomes, and reshape the learning process (NSF Coalition, 1993). Reshaping the learning process utilizing non-traditional applications for learning requires large investments of time for developing online learning versions of courses. It requires re-conceptualization of the content and learning objectives.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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