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In order to understand the role the oceans may play in global climate change requires an understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation changes. Global ocean circulation is controlled by thermohaline circulation . It is driven by differences in the density of seawater, which is determined by the temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) of the seawater. In the Atlantic, thermohaline circulation transports warm and very saline water to the North. There, the water cools and sinks into the deep ocean. This newly formed deep water subsequently moves southward. Dense water also sinks near Antarctica. The cold, dense waters from the North Atlantic and Antarctica gradually warm and return to the surface, throughout the world's oceans. The entire system moves like a giant conveyor belt. The movement is very slow (roughly 0.1 meters-per-second), but the flow is equivalent to that of 100 Amazon rivers.

This circulation system provides western Europe with comparatively warm sea surface temperatures along the coast and contributes to its mild winters. Ocean circulation models show that the thermohaline circulation is coupled to the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, and thus to the greenhouse effect. Increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can lead to a slowing or a complete breakdown of the circulation system. One might expect temperatures over western Europe to decrease in such a scenario. However, any such change would be superimposed on warming from the enhanced greenhouse effect. Therefore, there may be little change in temperature over western Europe, and any cooling could be restricted to the ocean area away from land. The potential effects of such circulation changes on marine ecosystems are largely unknown, but would probably be significant. Furthermore, if circulation in the oceans is reduced, their ability to absorb carbon dioxide will also be reduced. This would make the effect of human-produced carbon dioxide emissions even more pronounced.


Biodiversity is an important part of any ecosystem. The earth's biodiversity is significantly affected by human activities. These activities often lead to biodiversity loss. This loss can result from a number of factors including: habitat destruction, introduction of exotics, and over-harvesting. Of these, habitat destruction is probably the most important. Humans destroy habitats for many reasons: agricultural expansion, urban expansion, road construction and reservoir construction. Larger regions than those directly destroyed are generally affected because of the resulting habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation results in large populations being broken into smaller populations, which may be isolated from one another and may not be large enough to survive.

For example, the Aswan High Dam of Egypt was constructed because the desire to increase the supply of water for irrigation and power was considered paramount. The environmental side effects, however, have been enormous and include the spread of the disease schistosomiasis by snails that live in the irrigation channels; loss of land in the delta of the Nile River from erosion once the former sediment load of the river was no longer available for land building; and a variety of other consequences. The advisability agencies concerned with international development to seek the best environmental advice is now generally accepted, but implementation of this understanding has been slow.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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