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The fabrication of nanomaterials with strict control over size, shape, and crystalline structure has inspired the application of nanochemistry to numerous fields including catalysis, medicine, and electronics. The use of nanomaterials in such applications also requires the development of methods for nanoparticle assembly or dispersion in various media. A majority of studies have been aimed at dispersion in aqueous media aimed at their use in medical applications and studies of environmental effects, however, the principles of nanoparticle fabrication and functionalization of nanoparticles transcends their eventual application. Herein, we review the most general routes to nanoparticles of the key types that may have particular application within the oil and gas industry for sensor, composite, or device applications.

Synthesis methods for nanoparticles are typically grouped into two categories: “top-down” and “bottom-up”. The first involves division of a massive solid into smaller portions. This approach may involve milling or attrition, chemical methods, and volatilization of a solid followed by condensation of the volatilized components. The second, “bottom-up”, method of nanoparticle fabrication involves condensation of atoms or molecular entities in a gas phase or in solution. The latter approach is far more popular in the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Dispersions of nanoparticles are intrinsically thermodynamically metastable, primarily due to their very high surface area, which represents a positive contribution to the free enthalpy of the system. If the activation energies are not sufficiently high, evolution of the nanoparticle dispersion occurs causing an increase in nanoparticle size as typified by an Ostwald ripening process. Thus, highly dispersed nanoparticles are only kinetically stabilized and cannot be prepared under conditions that exceed some threshold, meaning that so-called “soft-chemical” or “ chemie duce ” methods are preferred. In addition, the use of surface stabilization is employed in many nanomaterials to hinder sintering, recrystallization and aggregation.

Bibliography

  • J. Gopalakrishnan, Chem. Mater ., 1995, 7 , 1265.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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