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Scottish chemist Thomas Charles Hope (1766 - 1844).

Barium

Barium minerals were known by alchemists in the early Middle Ages. Stones of the mineral barite found in Bologna, Italy (also known as Bologna stones ), were known to glow after exposure to light. Carl Scheele ( [link] ) identified barite in 1774, but did not isolate barium. Barium was first isolated as Ba 2+ in solution by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) in 1808. The oxidized barium was at first called barote , by Guyton de Morveau, ( [link] ) which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) to baryta , from which barium was derived to describe the metal.

German-Swedish pharmaceutical chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 - 1786). Author Isaac Asimov has called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit.
French chemist and politician Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737 - 1816) changed his name to Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution.
French chemist and biologist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743 – 1794).

Radium

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie ( [link] ) and her husband Pierre ( [link] ) in 1898 while studying pitchblende. After removing uranium they found that the remaining material was still radioactive. They then separated out a radioactive mixture consisting mostly of barium and an element that gave crimson spectral lines that had never been documented before. In 1910, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne ( [link] ) through the electrolysis of a radium chloride solution by using a mercury cathode and distilling in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas.

Marie Curie (1867-1934). Copyright Academy of Achievement.
French physicist Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906).
French chemist André-Louis Debierne (1874 - 1949).

Abundance

The abundance of the alkaline earth elements is given in [link] . Beryllium is rare, but found in the mineral beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ). While magnesium is widespread within the Earth's crust, commercial sources tend to be from sea water as well as the carbonate minerals magnesite (MgCO 3 ) and dolomite [(Ca,Mg)CO 3 ]. Calcium is also commonly found as the carbonate, however, strontium and barium are present as the sulphates celestine (SrSO 4 ) and barites (BaSO 4 ), respectively.

Abundance of alkaline earth elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
Be 2.6 (Earth’s crust), 6 (soil), 2 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Mg 23,000 (Earth’s crust), 10,000 (soil), 1,200 (sea water)
Ca 41,000 (Earth’s crust), 20,000 (soil), 400 (sea water)
Sr 370 (Earth’s crust), 200 (soil), 8 (sea water)
Ba 500 (Earth’s crust), 500 (soil), 0.001 (sea water)
Ra 6 x 10 -7 (Earth’s crust), 8 x 10 -7 (soil), 1 x 10 -10 (sea water)

Calcium is a key element for living. Not only is it present as the skeletal material for shell fish and crabs (CaCO 3 ) its phosphate derivative, hydroxyapetite [Ca 5 (OH)(PO 4 ) 3 ] is the structural material of bones and teeth. Calcium is also present in soft tissue at a level of ca. 22g/kg. Calcium is a vital metal for the following:

  • Links large molecules together.
  • Used in the activation of muscles
  • Used in enzyme activation by stabilization of particular conformations of proteins to be acted upon by enzymes.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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