# 0.9 Rice air curriculum - lesson 2 (teacher): physical properties

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Suggested Time: 65 minutes. Science TEKS: 3.11, 4.6, 5.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 .Math TEKS: 5.11, 5.14, 5.15.

## Objective

Students will begin to take the following measurements outside—the amount of ozone in the air, surface temperature and air temperature, types of clouds in the air, humidity, and wind direction. These measurements will continue for five class periods. At this point in time, students do not have enough knowledge to analyze the results they get. Creating hypotheses, drawing conclusions, and communicating their findings about the trends in data will occur later in the course. However, you can involve the students in experimental design by helping to select exactly where to take the measurements.

Students will spend a lot of this lesson getting familiar to the tools they will be using to take measurements at the beginning and end of the class. Teachers should refrain from explaining too much about how the instruments work, unless necessary, so as to allow students the freedom to explore on their own how to make the measurements Students will be introduced to the layers of the atmosphere and will learn about two of the tangible properties of the atmosphere that they will be measuring with their GLOBE instruments: temperature and winds.

## Background information

The Earth’s atmosphere is divided into five layers. The first layer, closest to earth’s surface, is the troposphere . This is where all of our weather occurs—clouds, wind, lightning, hurricanes, rain, snow, and tornadoes. Because air density is greatest near the surface and diminishes with height, the troposphere contains about 80% of the atmosphere’s mass. All of the air we breathe is in the troposphere, so it is here that air pollution is of greatest concern. Temperature is typically warmest near the ground and cools with height in the troposphere, which helps drive the weather and the mixing of pollutants.

The next layer is the stratosphere . This is where ultraviolet radiation from the sun reacts with oxygen to form ozone gas and the ozone layer. The oxygen and the ozone layer protect us from the cancer-causing ultraviolet radiation. This absorption of radiation causes temperatures to increase with height in the stratosphere, in contrast to cooling with height in the troposphere. This temperature pattern causes the stratosphere to be very stable; in other words, air rises and sinks very slowly in this layer.

The next layer is the mesosphere , which stops meteors and other fragments of things that come from space. The next layer is the thermosphere, where space shuttles orbit the earth. Finally, the last layer is the exosphere, which is the outermost portion of our atmosphere and is the layer in which satellites orbit the Earth. Outside of this layer lies space.

The two most obvious ways that we experience the atmosphere are through its temperature and its winds. Temperature is a physical property that measures how “hot” or “cold” something is. Microscopically, it is a measure of the average kinetic energy or speed of the molecules that make up the system. Temperature can be measured in Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit.

#### Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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