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Lucius Licinium Lucullus, one of the Roman generals in the Third Mithridatic War, is credited with bringing the cherry into Europe from the - shores of the Black Sea. Every Roman (as well as every Greek) had his beehives, as honey was the only sweetening common in the West. Indian cane sugar was more expensive and the raw cane was actually less tasty than honey, so there was no attempt to import it, except for medicinal purposes. (Ref. 48 , 122 )

Central europe


There was now a predominance of Germanic tribes in the area of present day Germany and Caesar and the Romans never actually penetrated that area although Roman merchants and traders did appear with goods to trade for furs and slaves. As the Germanic tribes came south their first encounters were with Celts, but whether much fighting was involved or not is unknown. Actually the Germans were very little different from the Celts; their religions and their languages had common origins. The Romans said the Germans were rather blonder, but otherwise little physical distinction was made.

Drusus conquered the Bavarian region for Rome from the Celts in 15 B.C. and Rhaetia, which included parts of southern Bavaria along with the Tyrol and east Switzerland, was established as a Roman province late in the century.

Austria and hungary

Having conquered the Celtic Cimbri and Teutones coming down at the edge of Italy and Austria, the Romans now squeezed the Celts out of Austria and consolidated their authority along the Danube clear to Budapest. Some of eastern present day Hungary appeared to be a part of the Kingdom of Dacia, which held out against Roman control for another century.


The Celtic Boii people, for whom Bohemia was named were driven out of Bohemia at this time by the Germanic tribes descending from the north.


As noted above east Switzerland was included in the Roman province of Rhaetia. The crowded Helvetii around Lake Neuchatel began a migration westward with cattle and wagons, leaving 400 villages and thousands of homesteads. Fearing a threat to her Mediterranean coastal province, Rome sent Caesar north to intercept the Helvetii and this he did as they poured through a gorge leaving the Lake Geneva area. Of 368,000 Helvetii, only 110,000 got back to Switzerland as the Romans retained control of the area. (Ref. 194 )

Western europe

Spain and portugal

Both of these areas continued as part of the Roman Empire. It has been noted under ITALY above that Julius Caesar was sent to Spain in 59 B.C. to suppress the guerrilla warfare and he did get some help from local groups. It was still later, however, after he had been given Gaul in the First Triumvirate that he became locked in a power struggle with Pompey and returned to Spain, defeating Pompey's son in the great battle of Munda near Cordoba in 45 B.C., thereby gaining mastery of the world. The Iberians then adopted the Roman language and culture. (Ref. 196 )

France and netherlands&Belgium

Gaul (France) was still essentially Celtic and Caesar's conquests began the Latinization of the country and helped to contain the Teutonic people to the east of the Rhine. The curly-headed Parisii, a Celtic tribe consisting of fishermen and navigators, settled a five acre Ile de la Cete in the river which is now in the center of Paris. The Batave Germanic tribe settled in the Rhine delta, now known as the Netherlands about 14 B.C. and they and the Frisians became the ancestors of the modern Dutch. (Ref. 175 )

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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