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Geography

Grade 4

The place where we live

(settlement characteristics)

Module 10

Urbanisation and informal settlements

Urbanisation

  • When our grandparents were children (circa 1950), approximately six out of ten people (60%) lived in rural settlements, while the other four (40%) lived mainly in cities. Today the situation has reversed. Approximately 60% of all the people in South Africa live in cities while the other 40% live in rural areas.
  • The migration of people from rural areas to urban areas is called URBANISATION.
  • The above-mentioned statistics show that a large number of people have urbanized between 1950 and 2004.

Activity 1

To give reasons for urbanisation [lo 2.2]

Supply possible reasons why people move from rural settlements to urban settlements.

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Informal settlements

  • When large numbers of people move to cities to find jobs or a place to live, it often happens that there are not jobs or a place to settle for everybody. A settlement then becomes overpopulated. (There are more people that can be accommodated.) These people then use various materials to erect a temporary shelter to protect them against cold, rain or danger. Typical examples of the materials used, are cardboard, plastic, wood and sheets of corrugated iron. These areas are called informal settlements.

Activity 2

To depict a scene in an informal settlement and make a list of the services that are not available [lo 3.1]

Make a simple sketch of a scene from an informal settlement, and then compile a list of services that are not available in the settlement.

Services and facilities that are not available in informal settlements

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People who live in these settlements often incur damages and loss of life as a result of fire.

Activity 3

To conduct a group discussion during which suggestions are made on how to prevent such disasters [lo 3.2, 3.3]

Discuss in your groups what can be done to prevent such disasters. Make a list of your suggestions.

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Assessment

Learning outcome 2: geographical knowledge and understanding

The learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

  • describes the importance of access to resources and services for people living in settlements.

Learning outcome 3: exploring issues

The learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

3.1 identifies issues associated with resources and services in a particular context;

3.2 identifies the factors that influence why some people have better access to resources compared to others in a particular context;

  • suggests ways to improve access to resources in a particular context.

Memorandum

Reasons for urbanisation

  • Employment
  • Facilities/services
  • Higher income
  • Family

Questions & Answers

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Daniel
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Maciej
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Abigail
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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AMJAD
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
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Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11084/1.1
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