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Natural sciences

Energy transfers and forces

Educator section


  • Examples of self-assessment have been included in the module to assess the learner’s contribution to the debate, and there is also a “control list” for the research assignment.

Leaner section


Activity: to emphasis the sensible use of the resources of the earth [lo 3.2]


a. Do research into the nuclear accident that occurred at Chernobyl in Russia in 1986. Write (at least one folio sheet) on the fearful effects of the tragedy with regard to the inhabitants and the environment


b. Find out what happens to marine life when ships leak oil. Write about it.

c. Arrange a class debate. Form two groups.

One group has to protest against nuclear power and the other group must offer arguments in favour of the use of it.

Make use of your knowledge of nuclear fuels and fossil fuels, as well as of renewable energy sources (the sun, wind and water) when you prepare your arguments.

Make use of the questionnaire that follows to assess your input.

Self AssessmentResearch
Name : ___________________________________________________________
Subject : ___________________________________________________________
Grade : ___________________________________________________________
Have you used more than one source? ______ ______ ______ ______ Are you sure that you have used your own words throughout? ______ ______ ______ ______ Do you have a meaningful introduction? ______ ______ ______ ______ Did you enjoy the assignment? ______ ______ ______ ______ Were you able to extend your knowledge by executing the assignment? ______ ______ ______ ______

Self Assessment




Always Sometimes Never
Have I stated my arguments clearly? ______ ______ ______
Did the other participants listen to my arguments? ______ ______ ______
Did I support the arguments of the other members of my group? ______ ______ ______
Could I elaborate on the arguments put forward by the other members of my group? ______ ______ ______
Did I use appropriate words? ______ ______ ______
Could I refute the arguments put forward by the other group? ______ ______ ______


Alternative sources of energy, e.g. wind energy, is more environment friendly but very expensive. We therefore have to continue using fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) and wood. Although new coal and petroleum reserves are still being discovered, these will eventually be exhausted. It is therefore of great importance to use our sources of energy as effectively as possible.

Electricity is convenient and practical, but is has to be generated and this incurs costs. Electrical appliances are classified according to their use of electricity. This is measured in watt or kilowatt (1 kilowatt = 1 000 watt) Electricity accounts are calculated according to the number of units recorded by an electricity meter. This unit is a kilowatt-hour (kWh), i.e. the amount of electricity used by a one-kilowatt appliance in one hour. An automatic washing machine is usually classified as a three-kilowatt appliance. This means that one can expect an account for three units of electricity for each hour that the machine is operated.


Learning Outcome 3: The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

Assessment Standard 3.2: We know this when the learner understands sustainable use of the earth’s resources: analyses information related to renewable and non-renewable sources.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11077/1.1
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