# 2.2 Orthographic projections in drawings

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## Orthographic projections in drawings

Activity 1:

To be able to distinguish between types of lines that are used in drawings

• Several different types of line are used to make drawings clearly understandable. . The appearance of a final drawing will depend on the quality of the lines drawn, so it is certainly worth taking care in this area.

Orthographic projection: First Angle and Third Angle Projection. The views in both will be the same but the projection on paper differs. The symbols below are used on drawings to indicate which projection is used.

First angle projection symbol

Third angle projection symbol

• For this exercise we will only look at First Angle Projection. Your educator will provide you with grid paper which makes it easier for you to draw. If you have drawing equipment it is even better.
• Always start by drawing the front elevation since this will determine the position of the other views. The plan view is drawn below the front elevation, and the end views on the side furthest away from their position on the front view. Each view only shows two dimensions and together they combine to give a three-dimensional description of the object.
• The example below illustrates Orthographic views in the first angle projection.

• Draw a first angle projection of your space case on scale 1:2

END A ELEVATION

FRONT ELEVATION

END B ELEVATION

PLAN

 LO 1.5 LO 1.9

Activity 2:

To be able to draw dimension drawings

• Drawings need to be dimensioned to show what the size of the object is in real live. The dimensions should be the real dimensions of the object. There are international rules for the application of dimensions:
• All dimensions should be read from the bottom or right-hand side of the paper
• Limit lines should be drawn out from the object and numbers written above the dimensioning lines stretching between these
• Smaller measurements should be placed closer to the drawing

Study these examples:

diameters

POSITION OF HOLES

SIZE OF HOLES

 LO 1.15

## Assessment

 Learning outcomes(LOs) LO 1 TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SKILLS The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technology. Assessment standards(ASs) We know this when the learner: investigates:1.1 identifies and explains a problem, need or opportunity from a real-life context, and investigates the context, the nature of the need, the environmental situation, and the people concerned; 1.4 uses a variety of available technologies and methods to: locate (e.g. use library referencing system, database searches, indexes); collect (questionnaires, data collection forms, requests for information, information searches, literature surveys); compare; sort; verify; evaluate; store information; designs:1.5 writes or communicates a short and clear statement or a design brief for the development of a product or system related to a context, problem, need or opportunity that has been identified by self; 1.6 lists product specifications and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified problem, need or opportunity based on all of the design key words listed below: people, age, target market, human rights, access; purpose, function, what the product will do; appearance and aesthetics: form, colour, shape, feel; environment: where product will be used or made, impact on the environment in the long and short term; safety: for users and manufacturers; cost, cost of materials, wastage, cost of manufacture, maximum selling price; ergonomics; quality; production; 1.7 generates a range of possible solutions that are significantly different from each other, and that show clear links to the design brief and specifications and constraints; makes:1.9 develops plans for making that include all of the following: resource lists (e.g. materials lists, tools, people, cost); formal drawings showing dimensions or quantities (e.g. orthographic, oblique or isometric views, sequence drawings, exploded views); manufacturing sequence;

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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