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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The development of medical science

Module 2

Jenner conquers pox

At the beginning of the 19th century, several scientists were working hard to find cures against deadly diseases. Illnesses like smallpox, which caused the death of people until fairly recently, are not such a big danger to mankind any longer.

Today, scientists are trying to find cures for other illnesses which threaten us, such as AIDS and cancer.

In the following section you will find out who have made valuable contributions to the fight against dangerous diseases.

a) The fight against smallpox

Read the following article and answer the questions:

TERRIBLE DISASTER HITS CAPE SOCIETY

Castle of Good Hope, 31 December 1755. This year the Cape was hit by the terrible “pox” which had raged so violently across the country in 1713. (In that year a ship carrying sailors with smallpox, docked at Cape Town. Hundreds of people died and the Khoina, in particular were affected. Complete Khoina tribes became extinct, and that broke the might of the Khoina for ever.

During 1755 altogether 987 Freeburghers and 492 slaves died from smallpox at the Cape. In the rural areas this disease was not as devastating, probably because those farmers stayed away from the Cape when they heard about the epidemic.

At that time disease was brought to the Cape through a ship which arrived from Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The clothes of people who had died from this disease, were bought by other people and in this way the disease spread rapidly. The governor took strict precautions to prevent this disease from ever being brought to the Cape again.

Everyone at the Cape went to church on 7 April 1756 to thank the Lord for having spared their lives and because there were no further cases of the disease.

(Adapted from: A. Boëseken: Die Nuusbode )

Activity 1:

To verify your explanation on pox with relevant proof

[lo 1.3]

(i) How many smallpox epidemics hit the Cape? Write down approximately how many people died during each epidemic.

(ii) Write down two causes of smallpox at the Cape.

(iii) What prevented people in the rural areas from getting smallpox?

(iv) You are the governor at the Cape and must ensure that the Cape is never again struck by this disease. Write down a number of measures which you will apply to protect the Cape.

(v) CLASS DISCUSSION

Have a discussion in class and tell your friends

what measures you will apply to prevent smallpox from

breaking out at the Cape again.

b) Edward Jenner conquers this disease

At the end of the 18 th century Edward Jenner heard of a country girl who said that she did not get the smallpox because she had had cowpox. People became infected from the sores on the udders of cows that they milked. Jenner started doing experiments to find an antidote for this disease.

He took the risk of inoculating an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps, with cowpox bacteria. This he did by first of all making a small cut on James’s arm and rubbing fluid from the sores on the girl’s arm, into the cut. The boy was later injected with real smallpox germs, but did not become ill. He had been made immune against smallpox. I wonder if you would have let yourself be inoculated if you were James?

Jenner repeated the experiment several times and nobody who had been inoculated became ill. His method of inoculation soon became known and people in other countries started using the same method.

Through the work of Jenner, everyone was saved from this dangerous disease.

Today people hardly get smallpox any more – the disease has almost been wiped out.

c) Assignment

Write down what you think Jenner would have written in his diary after he inoculated James Phipps with real smallpox germs.

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
HISTORICAL ENQUIRY The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 finds sources:
  • identifies sources to help answer the question about the topic;
1.2 works with sources:
  • selects and records relevant information for specific purposes from a variety of sources (e.g. oral, written and visual sources, including maps, graphs and tables, objects, buildings, monuments, museums);
1.3 answers the question:
  • arranges information logically and chronologically in answering questions about people, events, objects, and places in the past.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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