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  • Tekens en simptome:Iemand wat asbestose onder lede het, kan eers baie later in sy/haar lewe vir die eerste keer tekens of simptome van die siekte begin ervaar. Soms is dit eers tussen 10 en 20 jaar later.Tipiese simptome wat ‘n pasiënt met asbestose sal ervaar:
  • kort van asem;
  • haal met moeite asem;
  • konstante hoes;
  • lei tot hoesspasmas;
  • “vaste” bors;
  • borspyne;
  • pasiënt voel swak en siek;
  • swak slaappatrone;
  • swak eetlus.
  • Behandeling:

Daar is ongelukkig geen genesing van asbestose nie. Geneeshere probeer slegs om die simptome te verlig.

Die pasiënt moet onmiddellik alle moontlike kontak met asbes uitskakel en indien hy/sy rook, dit dadelik staak. Die longinfeksie moet aggressief behandel word. Asbestose-pasiënte moet ook alles moontlik doen om verkoues of griep vry te spring.



[LU 3.1; 3.3]

  • Hier volg ‘n uittreksel uit die toespraak van Mnr. Mabudafhasi, as adjunkminister van omgewingsake en toerisme van S.A., by die openbare verhoor oor asbes op 28 Januarie 2003.

Asbestos has been mined in this country for many years. By 1910 five asbestos mines were operating in South Africa. By the 1950’s, in other parts of the world such as Britain, companies have become aware that exposure to asbestos is harmful to human health and causes disease. In South Africa this realisation was not embraced so workers continued to remain ignorant of the true dangers of asbestos.

In South Africa the problem is more acute in the Limpopo Province and Northern Cape where reports indicate that children are forever playing on asbestos polluted and contaminated grounds. South Africa must come to term with the fact that we have an asbestos industry. The challenge is to ensure that all parts of the asbestos chain, from mining to ultimately removal and waste disposal, are handled in a responsible manner to avoid pollution that could be harmful to both the environment and the people.

Looking at the policy approach, the precautionary principle is a key part of South Africa’s environmental management policy. This means that our approach to development and good environmental governance is that where any risks exists, we need to focus our energies on preventive action to counteract any possible harm that could result from such development action.

However, the overall government policy on asbestos is till in its infancy. It is against this policy background that I must announce my profound appreciation of the efforts undertaken by government departments to deal with identified sources of asbestos problem. The Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) has started to deal with the mine dumps, but the issue of secondary pollution into nearby villages still remains unresolved. It is of course unsatisfactory that the mining companies that made huge profits have simply disappeared and did not contribute to this effort.

Since 1996, the National Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Environmental Affairs and Tourism took the initiative to investigate the impacts of asbestos within South Africa. The effects of asbestos are felt throughout the country, en every province, either through having mines or mine dumps in their provinces or through the use of asbestos products by consumers in general. Ex-workers and other sufferers of asbestos related diseases contracted due to environmental exposure are also not confined to one particular region but extend beyond our borders.

(External Link)

Beantwoord die volgende vrae nadat julle die inhoud van die toespraak in groepverband bespreek het:

1. Doen ons land genoeg om gevare van asbesstof aan te spreek?

2. Wat word reeds in SA gedoen om die negatiewe uitwerking van asbesstof te bekamp?

3. Wat kan gedoen word om die inwoners van SA teen die gevare te beskerm?


LU 3


Die leerder is in staat om ingeligte besluite oor sosiale en omgewingsvraagstukke en –probleme te neem.

Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:

3.1 vraagstukke wat met hulpbronne en dienste in ‘n spesifieke konteks gepaardgaan, identifiseer [identifiseer die vraagstuk];

3.2 faktore wat veroorsaak dat sommige mense in ‘n spesifieke konteks groter toegang tot hulpbronne as ander het, identifiseer [faktore wat die vraagstuk affekteer];

3.3 maniere voorstel om toegang tot hulpbronne in ‘n spesifieke konteks te verbeter [maak keuses].



  • Die fabriek hergebruik die “besoedelde” water



Berig 1: Werker siek a.g.v. werksomstandighede

Berig 2: Sterftes a.g.v. werksomstandighede toegesmeer

Berig 3: Besoedeling lei tot verswakking in gesondheid

Berig 4: Myne besoedel grond en riviere


  • Laekoste-behuising sowel as mynhuise naby aan nywerhede geleë – verswakking in gesondheid
  • Ontbossing – gebrek aan suurstof
  • Mense moet ingelig wees oor gevare. Dit moet sigbaar wees dat besture dit teenwerk



  • Beleid reeds in plek, maar word nog nie oral suksesvol toegepas nie.
  • Mynbesture nie genoegsaam betrokke by die bekamping van negatiewe invloed nie.


  • Beleid saamgestel
  • Probeer voorkomend optree
  • Toepassing van beleid nog in babaskoene

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde graad 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10985/1.2
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