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Student newStudent = { "C0681008","Cao Anh Huy", 8.50,{1, 2, 1985} };

Notice how we include the initialization values in curly brackets, just like when we initialize an array. Furthermore, we include the values for any nested structure type (in this case the dateOfBirth member is a nested structure), in a further set of curly brackets.

Copying structure variables

One of the most convenient features of structures is that we can copy them in a single assignment operation. This is unlike an array, which must be copied item-by-item. The name of a structure variable when it appears on its own represents the entire structure. If a structure contains an array as a member, that array is copied if the entire structure is copied.

Student newStudent1, newStudent2; // Get the values for newStudent2... // Copy newStudent2's value to newStudent1newStudent1 = newStudent2;

Comparing values of structures

We cannot compare structures in a single operation. If we wish to compare the values of two structure variables, we need to compare each of their members.

Arrays of structures

Just as we can have an array of basic data types, we can also have an array of structures. Suppose that we created an array of Student structures as follows. We could then copy newStudent into each position in the array.

Student students[100];Student newStudent; int i;for (i=0; i<100; i++) {// Get the values for newStudent ...// Copy into the next position in the array students[i]= newStudent; }

Operations on structures

Passing structures to and from functions

Structures can be passed to functions just like any other data type. Functions can also return structures, just as they can return any basic type. Structures can be also be passed to functions by reference.

Just like passing variable of a basic data type, when we pass a structure as an argument to a function, a copy is made of the entire structure. Structures are passed by value. We can easily take the code that output a student and put it into a function as follows.

void outputStudent(Student stu) {printf("Student Details\n"); printf("Identification: %s\n", stu.studentID);printf("Name: %s\n", stu.name); printf("Mark: %.2f\n, stu.markCS);printf("Date of Birth: %i/%i/%i\n", stu.dateOfBirth.day,stu.dateOfBirth.month, stu.dateOfBirth.year); }

If we had an array of 100 students and wanted to output them this would be straightforward:

Student students[100];int i; ...for (i=0; i<100; i++) { outputStudent(students[i]); }

We could similarly place the code to input a student into a function, but now we have a problem. The function can return a structure of type Student as follows.

Student inputStudent() {Student tempStudent; printf("Enter Student identification: ");scanf("%s",&tempStudent.studentID); printf("Enter Student name: ");fflush(stdin);gets(tempStudent.name); printf("Enter final mark: ");scanf("%f",&tempStudent.markCS); printf("Enter birth date (dd/mm/yyyy):");scanf("%i/%i/%i",&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.day,&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.month,&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.year );return tempStudent; }

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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