# Introduction and concepts

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${\mathrm{K}}_{2}{\mathrm{SO}}_{4}\mathrm{\left(s\right)}\to 2{\mathrm{K}}^{+}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}+\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}^{2-}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$

Remember that molecular substances (e.g. covalent compounds) may also dissolve, but most will not form ions. One example is sugar.

${\mathrm{C}}_{6}{\mathrm{H}}_{12}{\mathrm{O}}_{6}\mathrm{\left(s\right)}⇌{\mathrm{C}}_{6}{\mathrm{H}}_{12}{\mathrm{O}}_{6}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$

There are exceptions to this and some molecular substances will form ions when they dissolve. Hydrogen chloride for example can ionise to form hydrogen and chloride ions.

$\mathrm{HCl\left(g\right)}\to {\mathrm{H}}^{+}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}+{\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$

Write a balanced equation to show how silver nitrate ( ${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}$ ) dissociates in water.

1. The cation is: ${\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}$ and the anion is: ${\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$
2. Since we know both the anion and the cation that silver nitrate dissociates into we can write the following equation:
${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}\mathrm{\left(s\right)}\to {\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}+{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$

## Ions in solution

1. For each of the following, say whether the substance is ionic or molecular.
1. potassium nitrate ( $\mathrm{KNO}{}_{3}$ )
2. ethanol ( $\mathrm{C}{}_{2}\mathrm{H}{}_{5}\mathrm{OH}$ )
3. sucrose (a type of sugar) ( $\mathrm{C}{}_{12}\mathrm{H}{}_{22}\mathrm{O}{}_{11}$ )
4. sodium bromide ( $\mathrm{NaBr}$ )
2. Write a balanced equation to show how each of the following ionic compounds dissociate in water.
1. sodium sulphate ( $\mathrm{Na}{}_{2}\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}$ )
2. potassium bromide ( $\mathrm{KBr}$ )
3. potassium permanganate ( $\mathrm{KMnO}{}_{4}$ )
4. sodium phosphate ( $\mathrm{Na}{}_{3}\mathrm{PO}{}_{4}$ )

## Applications

1. Water hardness
Water hardness is a measure of the mineral content of water. Minerals are substances such as calcite, quartz and mica that occur naturally as a result of geological processes.

Hard water is water that has a high mineral content. Water that has a low mineral content is known as soft water . If water has a high mineral content, it usually contains high levels of metal ions, mainly calcium ( $\mathrm{Ca}$ ) and magnesium ( $\mathrm{Mg}$ ). The calcium enters the water from either ${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$ (limestone or chalk) or from mineral deposits of ${\mathrm{CaSO}}_{4}$ . The main source of magnesium is a sedimentary rock called dolomite, ${\mathrm{CaMg\left(CO}}_{3}\mathrm{\right)}{}_{2}$ . Hard water may also contain other metals as well as bicarbonates and sulphates.

## Interesting fact

The simplest way to check whether water is hard or soft is to use the lather/froth test. If the water is very soft, soap will lather more easily when it is rubbed against the skin. With hard water this won't happen. Toothpaste will also not froth well in hard water.

A water softener works on the principle of ion exchange . Hard water passes through a media bed, usually made of resin beads that are supersaturated with sodium. As the water passes through the beads, the hardness minerals (e.g. calcium and magnesium) attach themselves to the beads. The sodium that was originally on the beads is released into the water. When the resin becomes saturated with calcium and magnesium, it must be recharged. A salt solution is passed through the resin. The sodium replaces the calcium and magnesium and these ions are released into the waste water and discharged.

2. The acidity of rainwater comes from the natural presence of three substances ( $\mathrm{CO}{}_{2}$ , $\mathrm{NO}$ , and $\mathrm{SO}{}_{2}$ ) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. These gases are able to dissolve in water and therefore make rain more acidic than it would otherwise be. Of these gases, carbon dioxide ( $\mathrm{CO}{}_{2}$ ) has the highest concentration and therefore contributes the most to the natural acidity of rainwater.

Acid rain
Acid rain refers to the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow and dew. Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds. The droplets then fall to earth as rain, snow, mist, dry dust, hail, or sleet. This increases the acidity of the soil and affects the chemical balance of lakes and streams.

Although these reactions do take place naturally, human activities can greatly increase the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, so that rain becomes far more acidic than it would otherwise be. The burning of fossil fuels in industries, vehicles etc is one of the biggest culprits. If the acidity of the rain drops to below 5, it is referred to as acid rain .

Acid rain can have a very damaging effect on the environment. In rivers, dams and lakes, increased acidity can mean that some species of animals and plants will not survive. Acid rain can also degrade soil minerals, producing metal ions that are washed into water systems. Some of these ions may be toxic e.g. ${\mathrm{Al}}^{3+}$ . From an economic perspective, altered soil pH can drastically affect agricultural productivity.

Acid rain can also affect buildings and monuments, many of which are made from marble and limestone. A chemical reaction takes place between ${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$ (limestone) and sulphuric acid to produce aqueous ions which can be easily washed away. The same reaction can occur in the lithosphere where limestone rocks are present e.g. limestone caves can be eroded by acidic rainwater.

${\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{SO}}_{4}+{\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}\to {\mathrm{CaSO}}_{4}·\mathrm{H}{}_{2}\mathrm{O}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$

#### Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
Sharoon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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