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Graad 4


Module 1

Hoofrigtings en tussenrigtings


Dit is belangrik vir mense om te weet in watter rigting hulle beweeg. Dink net wat ‘n voetslaner in die berge, ‘n vlieënier of ‘n seevaarder sal doen as hulle nie hul rigting kan bepaal nie. Ja, hulle sal almal verdwaal en op verkeerde plekke uitkom.


Aktiwiteit 1

Om hoofrigtings te bepaal [lu 1.3]

Ons gaan vandag VELDWERK buite die klaskamer doen. Ons gaan as klasgroep na die skool se sportveld en ons gaan saam besluit waar die son vanoggend opgekom het.

Buite (vroegoggend): Strek albei jou arms sywaarts uit. Draai nou so dat jou REGTERHAND in die rigting wys waar die son OPGEKOM het.

1. Wat dink jy word die rigting genoem?

2. Die rigting wat nou aan jou LINKERKANT lê, word WES genoem.

3. Daar is egter nog ander belangrike rigtings as jy so bly staan:

Die rigting WAARHEEN jy kyk, is NOORD en die rigting AGTER jou is SUID.

Aktiwiteit 2

Om ‘n plek te vind met behulp van aanwysings [lu 1.4]

Vir die opvoeder

Identifiseer punte A/B/C/D op die terrein.

Versteek pryse op die eindpunte van elke groep se skattejag. Die terrein moet vooraf voorberei word. Verdeel u klas in vier (of meer) groepe. Elke groep begin by hul vooraf- aangeduide punt en soek na hulle skat deur die nodige roete te volg.

Groep 1 Groep 3
1. Gaan na punt A. 1. Gaan na punt C.
2. Bepaal NOORD. 2. Bepaal NOORD.
3. Stap 14 treë WES. 3. Stap 10 treë NOORD.
4. Stap 2 treë SUID. 4. Stap 12 treë OOS.
5. Stap 20 treë OOS, en... 5. Stap 3 treë NOORD, en …
Groep 2 Groep 4
1. Gaan na punt B. 1. Gaan na punt D.
2. Bepaal NOORD. 2. Bepaal NOORD.
3. Stap 3 treë OOS. 3. Stap 10 treë NOORD.
4. Stap 10 treë SUID. 4. Stap 4 treë OOS.
5. Stap 12 treë WES, en... 5. Stap 4 treë WES.
6. Stap 12 treë NOORD, en …

Maar ons het ‘n probleem!

As julle van Johannesburg na Kaapstad wil reis, reis julle nie suid nie en ook nie wes nie, maar wel iewers tussen die twee rigtings. Ons noem hierdie rigting SUIDWES.


Aktiwiteit 3

Om tussenrigtings te bepaal [lu 1.4]

Daar lê dus tussen die vier hoofrigtings nog ander rigtings ook.

Voltooi nou die res:

1. Presies tussen Suid en Oos lê:.....................................................................

2. Presies tussen Noord en Wes lê:..................................................................

3. Presies tussen Noord en Oos lê:...................................................................

Die tussenrigtings se name word dus gegee deur altyd eerste Noord of Suid te noem en dan die ander rigting daarby te voeg.

Aktiwiteit 4

Om tussenrigtings op ‘n rigtingster in te vul [lu 1.4]

Julle opvoeder sal vir julle ‘n skets uitdeel van ‘n rigtingster waarop Noord, Suid, Oos en Wes aangedui is. Vul al die tussenrigtings daarop in:

In watter rigting gaan jy nou reis om van Johannesburg na Kaapstad te gaan?

Gebruik jou atlas as jy twyfel waar die stede geleë is.

Ek ry ..........................................................

Aktiwiteit 5

Om rigting met behulp van ‘n rigtingster te bepaal [lu 1.4]

Kom ons kyk of julle alles verstaan. Kyk na die volgende skets en beantwoord dan die vrae:

  1. Vul al agt rigtings waarvan jy al geleer het, op die skets se rigtingster in. (Probeer netjies en klein skryf en gebruik die afkortings vir die rigtings).
  2. Sê nou in watter rigting elke plek vanaf die middelpunt lê:
  3. Die leerlooiery lê .......................................... van die middelpunt.
  4. Die N1-snelweg lê ....................................... van die middelpunt.
  5. Die watertoring lê ....................................... van die middelpunt.
  6. Die woonwapark lê ..................................... van die middelpunt.


Leeruitkoms 1: aardrykskundige ondersoek

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.


Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

1.3 simbole identifiseer wat in verskillende soorte kaarte gebruik word (insluitend planaansigte, ruitenet- en kaartsleutels);

1.4 plekke se ligging vind deur ‘n eenvoudige ruitenetverwysingstelsel en rigting te gebruik.


Om hoofrigtings te bepaal

  1. O

Om tussenrigtings te bepaal

  1. SO
  2. NW


Om tussenrigtings op ‘n rigtingster in te vul

  • Ek ry SW.

Om rigting met behulp van ‘n rigtingster te bepaal

2. a) NW b) S c) SW d) NO

Questions & Answers

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The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 4. OpenStax CNX. Oct 21, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11083/1.2
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