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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 8

Omgewing en interaksies

Module 33

Verskillende ekosisteme

Ons land is ryk aan wyduiteenlopende soorte ekosisteme.

Jou onderwyser sal julle waar moontlik na een of meer van hierdie ekosisteme neem.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om die nut van ’n grasveld-ekosisteem te bespreek

[lu 1.3]

In groot dele van ons land vorm gras die grootste deel van die ekosisteme. Ons kan ook die term BIOOM gebruik om na die dele van ’n land wat min of meer dieselfde ekologiese kenmerke toon, te verwys. So kry ons byvoorbeeld ’n grasveldbioom. ’n Grasveldbioom kan as ’n groot ekosisteem beskryf word of dit kan in kleiner grasveld-ekosisteme verdeel word.

Kennis van die grasveldbioom en -ekosisteme is belangrik in Suid-Afrika, aangesien groot dele van die land vir veebeweiding benut word.

Wildsboksoorte soos impala, buffels en springbokke is ook grasvreters.

Die tipe gras in ’n ekosisteem word hoofsaaklik deur die aard van die grond bepaal.

Grasveldbiome word in terme van die dominante grassoort wat daarin voorkom, benoem.

Die hooftipes grasveld-ekosisteme (eintlik biome) is:

1. soetveld – lae reënvalgebiede; goeie voer vir vee;

2. suurveld – hoë reënvalareas; nie baie goeie weiding nie;

3. gemengde veld.

Rooigras Themeda triandra is ’n welbekende grassoort wat baie voedsaam is vir vee.

Oorbeweiding is die boer se grootste oortreding, want dit lei op sy beurt tot erosie, woestynvorming en gevolglik hongersnood.

Voer ’n klasdebat oor die volgende vraag:

  • Is die gereelde brand van gras goed of sleg vir die omgewing?
  • Dui die voor- en nadele soos wat dit uit die debat voortspruit in die kolom hieronder aan.
VOORDELE VAN BRAND NADELE VAN BRAND
.............................................................. ..............................................................
.............................................................. ..............................................................
.............................................................. ..............................................................
.............................................................. ..............................................................
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.............................................................. ..............................................................

Assessering van DEBAT:

Het jy ’n waardevolle bydrae tot debat gelewer?

[LU 1.3]

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om ’n woud/boomekosisteem te bespreek

[lu 1.2; 1.3; 2.4]

Bome is nie net produseerders nie, maar vorm as gevolg van hul grootte ook die habitat van verskeie spesies.

Dier- en plantspesies bewoon bome.

Die blaarbedekking van bome verskaf skuiling vir voëls. Die bas en skeure in die boom verskaf ’n habitat vir ’n menigte insekspesies. Die blaarbedekking vorm ook ’n skaduryke omgewing vir skaduliewende, laaggroeiende plante.

Die blomme en vrugte wat bome in sommige gevalle voortbring, is ’n kosbron vir baie.

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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11049/1.1
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