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Graad 8

Energie: elektrisiteit, energie, warmte en lig

Module 10

Hitte en temperatuur

Hitte is ‘n soort energie – alle atome / molekules vibreer. Ons ervaar dit as hitte.

Temperatuur is die meting van hoe vinnig die molekules beweeg.

Hoe meet jy temperatuur?

‘n Termometer word gebruik. Dit bestaan uit ‘n glasbuis met ‘n vloeistof, bv. kwik, daarin wat uitsit tydens verhitting.

Wat is absolute zero ?

Dit is die koudste moontlike temperatuur waarby molekules of atome glad nie meer kan beweeg nie. Dit gebeur by –273,15 ºC of by 0 op die Kelvin-skaal. Dit is in ‘n Finse laboratorium gemeet.

Vind uit: Wat is die Kelvin-skaal ?

Jy weet seker dat ‘n mens temperatuur op ‘n Celsius-skaal of Fahrenheit-skaal kan meet. Sommige toestelle meet in Fahrenheit, bv. oonde, terwyl ander weer Celsius gebruik.

Hoe skakel jy Fahrenheit om na Celsius?

(Grade F – 32) ÷ 9 x 5 = C

Om Celsius na Fahrenheit om te skakel:

F = C ÷ 5 x 9 + 32

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om temperatuuromskakeling te verstaan

[lu 2.4]

Opdrag 1:

Het jy geweet?

1. Die hoogste temperatuur wat ooit op aarde gemeet is, was 720 miljoen°F, tydens ‘n kernfusie-eksperiment in Amerika.

Hoeveel is dit in ºC?

2. Die hoogste lugtemperatuur gemeet, was 58ºC in Libië.

Hoeveel ºF is dit?

3. Die laagste lugtemperatuur gemeet was in Antarktika en dit was –190 ºF.

Hoeveel ºC is dit?

Probeer gerus: www. convert-me.com


Aktiwiteit 2:

Om hitte-oordragterme en -begrippe vas te stel

[lu 2.1, 2.3, 2.4]

Opdrag 1:


Daar is verskillende terme wat hitte-oordrag beskryf:




Hitte en Water

Water het ‘n uitsonderlike hittehouvermoë.

Dit neem baie energie voordat ‘n massa water met 1 ºC styg of daal.

Daar is verskeie faktore betrokke:

  • Water is ‘n vloeistof.
  • Water is deurskynend en ligstrale kan tot 20 m diep penetreer.
  • Watermassa het golwe en strome en vertikale beweging wat hitte kan versprei.

As jy die hittehouvermoë van die land en die oseane vergelyk, sal jy besef dat dit baie verskil.


Ons weet reeds dat warmte ‘n verandering in temperatuur veroorsaak en dat die eenheid van hierdie warmte in Joule gemeet word, aangesien dit ‘n soort energie is.

Spesifieke warmtekapasiteit is die hoeveelheid warmte wat oorgedra (benodig/vrygestel) word as die temperatuur van ‘n stof met 1 ºC of 1 K verander.

Water is die duurste om te verhit, omdat groot hoeveelhede warmte vereis word om die temperatuur slegs ‘n paar grade te laat styg. Water sal egter ook groot hoeveelhede warmte lewer, indien dit afkoel.

Die uitwerking hiervan is die duidelikste op oseane, wat groot watermassas is. Dit verhit baie stadig, maar hou dan lank die warmte.

Opdrag 2:

  1. Verduidelik hoekom kusdorpe so ‘n gematigde temperatuur het as jy dit vergelyk met binnelandse dorpe.

2. Koel tee die vinnigste af wanneer jy eers koue melk byvoeg en dit dan laat staan of wanneer jy dit eers laat staan en dan koue melk byvoeg? Verduidelik.

3. Hoekom is die water by die strand lekker warm op ‘n koue dag as dit op ‘n paar warm dae volg?

4. Watter faktore dra by tot water se besondere warmtekapasiteit?

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
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I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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good afternoon madam
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11049/1.1
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