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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Natuurlike hulpbronne

Module 7

Energie en water

Energie en water

Energie

  • In die breë gesien, word energie in Suid-Afrika ondoeltreffend en onvolhoubaar verbruik. Die land se geraamde bydrae van twee persent tot die wêreld se koolstofdioksiedproduksie dra buite verhouding hoog by tot die kweekhuis-effek en mensgemaakte klimaatsveranderinge. Volgens die VN is Suid-Afrika per capita die wêreld se hoogste vrysteller van koolstofdioksied. Die land se algemene energiebeleid moenie gerig wees op die opwekking en verkoop van meer krag nie, omdat dit tot meer besoedeling sal lei. Die aanvraag na elektrisiteit moet eerder beter beheer word om uiteindelik die totale verbruik te verminder.
  • Meer as ‘n driekwart van Suid-Afrika se energie word van steenkool verkry, met die gevolg dat die land se afhanklikheid van hierdie nie-hernubare hulpbron van die hoogste in die wêreld is. Suid-Afrika beskik egter oor enorme steenkoolreserwes van oor die 58 000 miljoen ton. Ongeveer die helfte van die steenkool wat plaaslik ontgin word word gebruik vir kragopwekking. ‘n Kwart word gebruik om vloeibare sintetiese brandstowwe deur middel van die Sasolproses te vervaardig, terwyl die ander kwart direk deur nywerhede of in huise verbrand word om hitte te verskaf.
  • Al die groot steenkool-kragstasies is binne ‘n radius van 150 km van die grootste steenkolmyne in die Oos-Transvaalse Hoëveld geleë. Dit lei tot lugbesoedeling wat volgens sekere wetenskaplikes gelyk is aan die ergste in die wêreld.
  • Lugbesoedeling hou uiters nadelige gevolge vir die omgewing in, veral aangesien ‘n aansienlike deel van Suid-Afrika se vrugbare landbougrond en kommersiële, plantasies, sowel as sowat 25 persent van sy oppervlak-afloopwater, binne hierdie streek val. Direkte steenkoolverbranding deur nywerhede en swart dorpsgebiede wat nie elektrisiteit het nie, veroorsaak ook aansienlike lugbesoedeling, wat op sy beurt weer bydra tot omgewings- en gesondheidsprobleme.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om konsepte te verklaar wat verband hou met energie

[lu 1.1]

1. Identifiseer die drie natuurlike hulpbronne wat volgens die teks nie-volhoubaar gebruik word en omskryf hul betekenisse:

2. Hoekom is dit so dat die helfte van die bevolking van SA van brandhout as ‘n energiebron afhanklik is?

3. Verduidelik die volgende:

  • Sintetiese brandstof
  • Kweekhuiseffek
  • Volhoubaarheid
  • Mensgemaakte klimaatsveranderinge

‘n Groot omgewingsprobleem is die feit dat nagenoeg die helfte van Suid-Afrika se bevolking tans aangewese is op die nie-volhoubare verbruik van brandhout as energiebron. As die huidige verbruik voortduur, kan alle natuurlike bosse in die voormalige tuislande teen die jaar 2020 gestroop wees.

Hoewel kernkrag as ‘n potensiële kragbron steun geniet, is elektrisiteit wat by die Koeberg-kragsentrale opgewek word duurder as dié in die nasionale netwerk.

Daar is ook nog groot, onopgeloste omgewingsprobleme wat betref die berging van gevaarlike kernafval.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om maniere te vind om hulpbronverbruik te verminder

[lu 3.3]

1. Bespreek die volgende stelling:

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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