# Transformation of graphs  (Page 3/5)

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$af\left(bx+c\right)+d;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}a,b,c\in R$

In this case "a", "b", "c" and "d" can be either positive or negative depending on the particular transformation. A positive "d" means that graph is shifted up. On the other hand, we can specify constants to be positive in the following representation :

$±af\left(±bx±c\right)±d;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}a,b,c>0$

The form of representation appears to be cumbersome, but is more explicit in its intent. It delinks sign from the magnitude of constants. In this case, the signs preceding positive constants need to be interpreted for the nature of transformation. For example, a negative sign before c denotes right horizontal shift. It is, however, clear that both representations are essentially equivalent and their use depends on personal choice or context. This difference does not matter so long we understand the process of graphing.

## Addition and subtraction to independent variable

In order to understand this type of transformation, we need to explore how output of the function changes as input to the function changes. Let us consider an example of functions f(x) and f(x+1). The integral values of inedependent variable are same as integral values on x-axis of coordinate system. Note that independent variable is plotted along x-axis as real number line. The integral x+1 values to the function f(x+1) - such that input values are same as that of f(x) - are shown on a separate line just below x-axis. The corresponding values are linked with arrow signs. Input to the function f(x+1) which is same as that of f(x) corresponds to x which is 1 unit smaller. It means graph of f(x+1) is same as graph of f(x), which has been shifted by 1 unit towards left. Else, we can say that the origin of plot (also x-axis) has shifted right by 1 unit.

Let us now consider an example of functions f(x) and f(x-2). Input to the function f(x-2) which is same as that of f(x) now appears 2 unit later on x-axis. It means graph of f(x-2) is same as graph of f(x), which has been shifted by 2 units towards right. Else, we can say that the origin of plot (also x-axis) has shifted left by 2 units.

The addition/subtraction transformation is depicted symbolically as :

$y=f\left(x\right)\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}⇒\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y=f\left(x±|a|\right);\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}|a|>0$

If we add a positive constant to the argument of the function, then value of y at x=x in the new function y=f(x+|a|) is same as that of y=f(x) at x=x-|a|. For this reason, the graph of f(x+|a|) is same as the graph of y=f(x) shifted left by unit “a” in x-direction. Similarly, the graph of f(x-|a|) is same as the graph of y=f(x) shifted right by unit “a” in x-direction.

1 : The plot of y=f(x+|a|); is the plot of y=f(x) shifted left by unit “|a|”.

2 : The plot of y=f(x-|a|); is the plot of y=f(x) shifted right by unit “|a|”.

We use these facts to draw graph of transformed function f(x±a) by shifting graph of f(x) by unit “a” in x-direction. Each point forming the plot is shifted parallel to x-axis (see quadratic graph showm in the of figure below). The graph in the center of left figure depicts monomial function $y={x}^{2}$ with vertex at origin. It is shifted right by “a” units (a>0) and the function representing shifted graph is $y={\left(x-a\right)}^{2}$ . Note that vertex of parabola is shifted from (0,0) to (a,0). Further, the graph is shifted left by “b” units (b>0) and the function representing shifted graph is $y={\left(x+b\right)}^{2}$ . In this case, vertex of parabola is shifted from (0,0) to (-b,0).

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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