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Economic and management sciences

Grade 9

Sustainable growth and development

Module 8

Regional and international agreements

The existence of definite inequalities between the different regions is a characteristic of the South African economy. These inequalities are mainly attributable to the ethnic divisions that formed the basis of regional development policy during the previous political dispensation. Ethnic groupings were localised in particular regions in which so-called “homelands” were allocated to each group. Any particular group had to facilitate its social, political and economic development within the homeland allocated to it. This enforced segregation or separation and industrial decentralization placed whole communities in areas where their economic existence was threatened by disadvantageous results like poverty, underfeeding, overpopulation, crime, etc. Close to half of the black population were forced to remain in the homelands where the per capita income was less that a quarter of the national average.

Activity1: homelands policy [lo 2.1]

Identify the so-called former independent and self-governing states that existed under the previous dispensation and indicate the ethnic groups that had to find their political, social and economic refuge in each “homeland”.

  • Present the information that you have gathered:

The results of the above-mentioned regional development policy was stagnation of economic growth, a considerable decrease in investments and considerable lowering of real income over a number of decades. The economy was mainly dependent on exportation of minerals and the manufacturing sector was unable to provide the required employment opportunities that would supply the needs of the population. Because of the apartheid policies, there was very little economic co-operation with other African states and South Africa found itself in a situation of isolation.

The following was suggested to achieve and extend regional and international co-operation against this background, and in accordance with RDP objectives for a strong, dynamic and balanced economy:

a) Elimination of poverty , low wages and the extreme inequalities in wages and prosperity that resulted from the policies of the previous government;

b) Easing of economic imbalances and unequal development opportunities within and among the different South African regions;

c) Development of a progressive and balanced regional policy based on the principles of equity and mutual benefit; and

d) Integration into the international economy in such a way that viable and effective local manufacturing capacity and increased potential for exportation of manufactured goods would be sustained.

Sustainable growth and development are only possible if the above principles are incorporated in policy and budget structures. The democratic government will play a leading role in this and it is expected that a dynamic balance between government initiatives, the private sector and community development will be consistently pursued. Broadly representative institutions that will plan strategies for job creation and community development must be established to assist growth in local economies. Examples would include the raising of community development funds in the private sector, investment strategies, training, small business enterprises, agricultural development, etc. If necessary, the government could make subsidies available for job creation and development projects. The ultimate goal is that projects must eventually be individually sustainable.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11074/1.1
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