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Natural sciences

Grade 8

Energy: electricity, heat and light

Module 4

Electricity

One of the forms of energy mentioned above is ELECTRICITY.

Electricity is an invisible form of energy that is related to the movement of very small particles. To understand this, one needs to understand the structure of an atom.

  • An atom is the smallest particle that any substance consists of. It comprises a nucleus of particles known as protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral), as well as a surrounding cloud of negative particles – electrons . The electrons move in an electric circuit.
  • In a neutral atom, the positive and negative particles are in balance.

Activity:

To make a drawing of the structure of an atom [lo 2.1, lo 2.3]

Assignment 1:

Ask your educator to explain the typical structure of an atom to you and then draw your own representation of it.

Assessment of the Sketch of an Atom

Were you able to draw the atom clearly.

[LO 1.2; LO 1.3]

The positive and negative particles in a neutral atom are usually in balance.

Activity:

To understand the concept of potential difference

[lo 2.1, lo 2.3, lo 2.4]

  • When an imbalance occurs, the negative electrons are set in motion.
  • Electricity can be conducted for great distances along wires. This energy can be converted to other forms of energy, like light, heat and movement by means of an appliance connected to the wires.
  • The electrons are not able to move by themselves but are pushed by the electric transfer that occurs. This “pushing” is known as the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (Pd).
  • This potential difference is usually produced by a power station or a battery. Inside the wiring, electrons will jump from one atom to another, like wagons of a freight train bumping against each other when force is applied at one end – it causes an impact that is transferred all along the wiring.

Assignment 1: Questions:

What is potential difference?

Find out what direct current is. Where is it used?

Assessment of Potential Difference

Were you able to answer the questions correctly?

[LO 2.1; LO 2.4]

Did you know?

  • There is a mild but similar electric current in the human body. It moves along the nerves in the form of pulses.
  • The machine that is able to detect and record this current is an EEG, (an electroencephalograph).
  • During an investigation with an electroencephalograph, electrodes with sensors are attached to the body.

Assessment

Learning outcomes(Los)

LO 1

Scientific Investigations

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standards(Ass)

This is evident when the learner:

1.1 plans investigations;

1.2 conducts investigations and collects data;

1.3 evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2

Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

This is evident when the learner:

2.1 recalls meaningful information;

2.2 categorises information;

2.3 interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.

Memorandum

Assignment 1:

One of the listed forms of energy is ELECTRICITY.

  • Electricity is an invisible form of energy that is based on the movement of very small particles. To understand this, one needs to understand the structure of an atom.
  • An atom represents the smallest particle that any substance consists of. It comprises a small nucleus of particles known as protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral), as well as a surrounding cloud of small negative particles – electrons . It is the electrons that move in the electric circuit.
  • In a neutral atom, the positive and negative particles are usually in balance.
  • When an imbalance is created, the negative electrons come into motion.n°
  • Electricity is the movement of energy along long lengths of copper wire and this energy can be converted to other forms of energy such as light, warmth and movement by means of any appliance connected to it.
  • The electrons cannot move by themselves; they are actually pushed forwards in the electric condition.
  • This “pressure” is known as the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (Pd).

éééé

The potential difference is usually produced by a power station or a battery.

  • In the wiring, electrons will literally bounce from one atom to another like the wagons of a freight train that bump against one another when force is applied at one end – it causes an impact that is transferred all along the wiring.

Do you know?

  • There is a mild but similar electric current in the human body, which moves along the nerves and muscles in the form of nerve and muscle pulses.
  • The machine that is able to pick up and record this is an EEG, an electroencephalograph. During such an investigation, electrodes with sensors that take readings are attached to the body.
  • Another application involves a pacemaker, which maintains the electrical impulses of the muscle tissue of the heart and supplements any inadequacy.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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