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5. Cause and effect

We have now established that changes do not occur at random – one change brings about another. You probably know the concept of cause and effect. At this stage it should be great fun to think and chat about cause and effect. Argumentation is nothing new to you; after all, you are in Grade 7!

Activity 5:

To choose the best options with regard to population changes

[lo 3.2]


Underline the correct answer from the words in brackets:

1. As the fertility in any community increases, the births in that community will (decrease/increase).

2. Good medical care for the entire community normally leads to a drop in the (death rate/life expectancy).

3. If the mortality rate in a [primitive] society is very high, the birth rate will definitely be (high/low).

4. When any society is used to receiving state benefits for the aged, families will tend to get (smaller/bigger).

5. A population with a high fertility rate and a low mortality rate, will (shrink/grow).

6. The population of any country that is severely affected by the Aids-pandemic, will experience a drop in (fertility/life expectancy).

At the moment the developing countries are experiencing a rapid growth in their population, so that the population pyramid in each case shows a typically young population. Developed countries , such as almost all of the European states, the USA and Canada, once experienced times when the population could be described as young. These states have since undergone demographic change.

6. Demographic change, and how it can be represented by means of population pyramids

Here we have a description (a history in a certain sense) of the population structure of England and Wales. This is a good example of the different stages through which a population progresses.

Population pyramids

Over the centuries the population has remained relatively constant. The birth as well as the mortality rate was high, and the life expectancy short. The pyramid of this group probably resembled the one in Figure 1(a) at the beginning of this learning unit.

  1. After the changes effected by the agricultural and industrial revolutions when farms started to produce more food due to mechanisation, and people turned to factory jobs for an income, the population showed a marked growth. The birth rate gradually started to overtake the mortality rate because of better nutrition, improved medical care, and better sanitation. As before, families were still quite large, but as fewer babies and youths died, the total population took on a “young” character.
  2. Fifty years later the population pyramid showed a marked difference from the previous pyramid. A lower fertility rate then caused the younger part of the population to shrink proportionally. The lower fertility rate was due to the fact that women were prepared and chose to have fewer children, as they preferred to join the workforce to help earn an extra income for their families. Moreover, the state took on the responsibility of caring for the aged, which meant that they were no longer dependent on their children. (In earlier times children were regarded as an “insurance policy for old age”.)

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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