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Key words : air pollution, fuel consumption (wastage and conservation), maintenance of roads; environmental destruction.

2. Discuss the following statement:

Solar-powered geysers should be made compulsory.

Explain what you understand under solar heating.

How does solar heating work?

For what purpose can solar heating be applied?

Is it less or more expensive than electricity?

W ater

All life on Earth depends on water. South Africa is an arid country and water is the most important factor limiting future development. Yet the productivity and diversity of this country’s vital fresh water systems were allowed to deteriorate, or even to be destroyed.

Reasons for the above include unwise aforrestation, agricultural development, industrial and municipal pollution, urbanisation, the introduction of alien species, and the clearing of natural vegetation.

While the water supply in most formal urban areas is of high quality and effective water-borne sewerage systems are the norm, many people in both rural and informal settlements do not have adequate access to water. Where water is available, the poor quality often causes serious health problems.

Most South African rivers are impounded or regulated at one or more points along their length, radically altering their ecological status. So much water is now extracted from previously perennial rivers, such as the Letaba and Levuvhu (supplying water to the Kruger National Park), that they have ceased to flow for long periods, despite good rains.

The demand for water is still increasing exponentially and it is estimated that huge parts of South Africa will experience a permanent drought somewhere between 2002 and 2040. It is obvious that water conservation measures must be implemented in all spheres of life as a matter of urgency.

Activity 3:

To inform and educate people about the importance of water conservation

[lo 3.3]

1. Plan an efficient advertising campaign to inform the public about the necessity of water conservation and the sustainable use of water.

First decide on what kind of people you are going to target (rural or urban people; any other specific groups?).

Decide which media you are going to use (radio, TV, magazines, newspapers, posters, a play, poems, songs, a calendar, etc.)

When you have clarity on the above, you can decide on the content (of the text of copy which you are going to write) and visual material or costumes and props (which you might also like to make yourself) to bring the message across.

2. Plan an educational programme to make learners in grade 1 aware of the need for water conservation. If possible, implement the programme yourselves, or pass it on to learners in other classes or schools, and write a report to evaluate their efforts.

Wetlands play an important role in maintaining biodiversity. These systems also serve as an important source of water for many rural communities. However, many wetlands have been reclaimed or affected by drainage programmes for agricultural crops, the production of wood, or by filling up the area for roads and houses.

Activity 4:

To make people aware of the importance of wetlands

[lo 3.3]

Wetlands play an important role in maintaining biodiversity. These systems are also an important water source for many rural communities. Despite this many wetlands are drained or disturbed by drainage programmes relating to agricultural crops, wood production and reclaiming land for roads and houses.

1. What is a wetland? See how much you can find out.

2. Why is it important to protect wetlands?


Learning Outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Geographical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 identifies and selects a variety of geographical and environmental sources relevant to an enquiry [uses fieldwork and other enquiry methods; finds sources];

1.2 interprets maps and atlas information, graphical and statistical sources [works with sources].

LO 3

Exploring Issues (social and environmental)

The learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.

We know this when the learner:

3.3 investigates possible ways of reducing resource consumption [makes choices].



1. These are low-lying areas with ample water. It is a complex ecosystem on its own, boasting a wealth of plant and animal life.

2. Wetlands form a unique ecosystem and needs to be protected.

Wetlands serve as a “sponge” to absorb superfluous water.

For the protection of biodiversity.

Accommodates a large variety of plant and animal species.

Community interest.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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