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Social sciences: history

Grade 7

Democracy or war

Module 8

The american war of independence

People can be governed in different ways. One of these is by way of a democratic government. In a democracy each person takes part in the establishment of rules and laws. Everyone works together with the rest in obeying the rules that are required by the majority.

In this module we'll be investigating two examples of government in which citizens did not have democratic rights. Those situations unfortunately led to conflict and war:

- The American War of Independence (1775 – 1783)

- The South African War (1899 – 1902)

Can you remember how democracy developed in South Africa? It was the focus of one of last year's modules!

Activity 1:

To give reasons for the emigration to america

[lo 2.2]

Why is it common for people to immigrate into America?

Prospective settlers, mainly from Europe, began moving to America more than two centuries ago. This was one of the greatest migrations of all times. There were particular historical and geographical (topographical and climatic) reasons for the settlers' preference for the East Coast of North America.

  • Study one of the two accompanying sources:

SOURCE 1

The origin of the USA

SOURCE 2

  • Europeans immigrated to America for economical reasons. Britain was a country that experienced serious economic problems, especially between 1620 and 1635. By 1690, more than 250 000 people had immigrated into America from Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, Switzerland and France and by 1775 more than 2 million people were living in America.
  • Round about 1610 England had established a small settlement in Virginia. In time, cotton and tobacco came to be produced in the eastern part of the continent, also by people from other West European countries that possessed colonies in America. During the 17 th century the population of the British colonies increased - particularly because people were making an escape from religious persecution in England. In the 1700s Britain was a powerful trading country. It took over many of the regions with which it had been trading. Such regions became colonies. The raw materials that were obtained from these colonies were processed in British factories.
  • Between 1607 and 1732 England colonised 13 regions along the south-eastern part of the North American coast.
  • By 1732 there were 13 self-governing colonies. When the colonies started to become increasingly wealthy, Britain began to prescribe trade restrictions and instituted taxes.

SOURCE 3

TOPOGRAPHIC

RAINFALL

  1. Conduct a class discussion with regard to the following questions:

(i) Why did emigrants leave Europe in particular? Do you see these as acceptable reasons for leaving your country? Why?

(ii) Why did the settlers establish themselves where they did in America?

(iii) Why would it have been difficult for large groups of people to spread out westwards? (Hint: Topography and climate)

(iv) What are the products that are grown in this area at present?

(v) Provide examples of (groups of) people who came to South Africa for similar reasons.

Activity 2:

To explain the causes and effects of emigration to america

[lo 3.2]

The American War of Independence (Revolution): 1775 – 1783.

Britain refused to listen to the complaints of the American colonists. The colonists' dissatisfaction reached breaking point when a new tax on tea was levied. In protest, some of their leaders disguised themselves as Red Indians, and went on board ships with a cargo of tea due to be exported to England from Boston harbour in 1773. They dumped the whole cargo into the sea, an action that became known as the Boston Tea Party.

Several hostile clashes followed, but the Americans began to gain the upper hand after 1775. They achieved one victory after the other. The commander of the American forces, George Washington, succeeds in crossing the Delaware River with 24 000 men. Britain was obliged to yield and to grant independence to their American colonies in the United States of America in 1783.

Three famous Americans who played important roles in drawing up the American Constitution (from left to right): John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.

The Draft Constitution of the USA was approved in 1787. Following this, the USA expanded and included more than 30 colonies that were established during the 19th century with the 13 established during the 17th and 18th centuries. By the beginning of the 20th century the number of states that were members of the federation had increased to 50. At present the USA stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of more than 4 000 km.

The development of the USA

b) The Declaration of Independence that was drawn up in 1776 forms part of the American Constitution.

“All people are created equal and the creator has endowed them with certain inalienable rights, among which are the right to life, to freedom and to strive toward happiness!”

Article from Declaration of Independence

  • Did the people of the United States manage to achieve the ideal? Motivate.
  • Do you agree with the excerpt? Motivate.

Assessment

Assessment standards(ASe)
LEARNING OUTCOME 1: HISTORICAL ENQUIRY- The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present
1.1 Access the sources
1.2 Use the sources
1.3 Communicate information from sources (reporting))
LEARNING OUTCOME 2: HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding
2.1 Understand chronology and time
2.2 Supply reasons why an historical event took place (causes, effects)
2.3 Differentiate between different periods (similarities, differences)
LEARNING OUTCOME 3: INTERPRETING HISTORY – The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history
3.1 Be aware of more than one view of the past
3.2 Distinguish between fact and opinion
3.3 Reconstruct the past

Questions & Answers

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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
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Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11023/1.1
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