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Social sciences


Grade 8


Module 12


1. Location

The location of a place can be determined by various means:

1.1 The index of the atlas

There is an alphabetical list of place names at the back of each atlas.

Let’s take Oudtshoorn as an example: Oudtshoorn RSA 8 - 33º 36” S, 22º 11’ E.

The number of the page on which you will find Oudtshoorn is given directly after the name Oudtshoorn.

This is followed by the latitude: 33º 36” S.

Which is followed by the longitude: 22º 11” E.

Oudtshoorn will be shown on the map at the place where these lines cross.



The latitude is ALWAYS given FIRST. As South Africa is situated in the Southern Hemisphere, the southern longitudinal line is given first, followed by the eastern latitudinal line, as South Africa also lies in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Activity 1:

Find the location of the following places by using the index of the atlas:

[lo 1.2]

  1. Noupoort
  2. Port Elizabeth
  3. Johannesburg
  4. Durban
  5. Stellenbosch

A map is divided into blocks of the same size. Blocks arranged horizontally, are designated numerically (in numbers), while the vertically arranged blocks are marked alphabetically. The letter and number of each block can then be used as a guide to locate a place.


The man is in block 3A.

Activity 2:

Name the blocks in which you find the following:

[lo 1.1]

1. a Building

2. a Horse

3. a Tree

4. a Car :

1.1.1 Grid referencing / Coordinates

This is the method that is used to indicate location on 1:50 000 topographic maps.

Each topographic map sheet represents a portion of a degree (º).

Each degree is divided into 60 minutes (‘).

Each minute, again, is divided into 60 seconds (“).


The location of A is 33º 31’ S; 22º 12’ E.

The location of B is 33º 33’ S; 22º 14’ E.

What will the location of C and D be?


There are 60 seconds (“) between two minute lines, but this is not indicated on topographic maps. These 60” have to be estimated (30”, for instance, will lie more or less in the central position between two minute lines.)

The location of C is 33º 34’ 10” S; 22º 11’ 25” E.

The location of D is 33º 33’ 30” S; 22º 15’ 50” E.


All the latitudinal lines on 1:50 000 topographic maps are Southern latitudinal lines and the higher numbers are towards the south. All the longitudinal lines are EASTERLY longitudes and their numbers increase eastwards. Latitudinal lines are always given FIRST.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Geographical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies and selects a variety of geographical and environmental sourcesthat are relevant to the research;
  • interprets information from maps and atlases, as well as graphic and statistical
  • calculates distance from maps and compares it to real distance;
  • identifies physical features and features created by people and aerial photographs
and maps.



  1. B2.
  2. C4.
  3. D2.
  4. E5.


  1. 31°11'S, 24°56'E
  2. 33°57'S, 25°34'E
  3. 26°09'S, 28°00'E
  4. 29°50'S, 31°01'E
  5. 33°56'S, 18°52'E


  1. B2.
  2. C4.
  3. D2.
  4. E5.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
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im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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