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Aardrykskunde

Graad 5

Hulpbronne

Module 18

Natuurlike hulpbronne: minerale

Minerale as natuurlike hulpbron

Suid-Afrika is ryk aan minerale soos goud, yster, steenkool, platinum en diamante. Soos die kaart op die volgende bladsy duidelik aandui, is die minerale van Suid-Afrika in die noordoostelike deel van ons land gekonsentreer. Steenkool en goud maak ‘n baie groot persentasie van ons land se minerale rykdom uit.

Minerale van Suid-Afrika

Sommige van die minerale word op die oppervlak gedelf (diamante), terwyl ander diep onder die grond onder baie gevaarlike omstandighede gemyn word.

Yster, wat ‘n kernkomponent in die vervaardiging van staal is, is weer nie so volop nie. Staal word vervaardig deur ystererts en ander minerale in groot oonde saam te smelt. Plat plate staal word hieruit vervaardig, wat weer later gebruik word om ander produkte te vervaardig. Staal vorm ‘n baie belangrike komponent in die moderne vervaardigingsproses. Dink maar net weer aan die motor waarna ons vroeër in die module verwys het. Sonder staal sal die produksielyn vir motorvoertuie buite produksie wees.

Daar is twee hoofmetodes van mynbou:

oop myne;

tonnelmyne.

Minerale soos yster, koper, asbes en diamante word somtyds in oop myne gedelf. Dit is bloot ‘n groot oop gat in die aarde wat op so ‘n manier gegrawe word dat daar ‘n spiraalpad na die diepste deel van die gat lei. So kan voertuie dan tot op elke vlak van die myn beweeg om erts en materiaal te vervoer na die plek van prosessering.

Wanneer minerale egter baie diep onder die grond gevind word, is dit nodig om ‘n skag in die aarde te maak sodat die mynwerkers by die minerale kan uitkom. ‘n Skagtoring word opgerig en ‘n diep gat word in die grond geboor. Uit hierdie gat word dwarsgange en tonnels deur skaggrawers gegrawe tot by die riwwe met delfstowwe. Hierdie gange en tonnels lê op verskillende vlakke.

Die minerale word met dinamiet losgeskiet en dan uitgegrawe. Die “gruis” word dan op ysterbakke (koekepanne), wat soos ‘n trein op ‘n spoor loop, gelaai en met hysbakke na die oppervlak van die grond gehys waar dit verwerk word en oortollige rots op mynhope gegooi word. Die waterige oorblyfsels gaan na ‘n slykdam .

Aktiwiteit

Om 'n diagram van byskrifte te voorsien

[lu 1.1]

  • Raadpleeg weer die vorige paragrawe en voorsien die dwarssnit van ‘n tonnelmyn van die nodige byskrifte.

Assessering

LU 1

AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEK

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.

Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:

  • bronne met nuttige aardrykskundige inligting kan kies en gebruik;
  • tussen feite en menings onderskei [werk met bronne];
  • inligting kategoriseer;
  • sketskaarte en/of planne na aanleiding van veldwaarnemings en afmetings teken [werk met bronne];

1.6 moontlike oplossings vir probleme identifiseer en ondersoek [beantwoord die vraag];

  • deur projekte, bespreking, debat en diagramme, kennis en begrip van die vraagstuk toon [dra die antwoord oor].

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde graad 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10985/1.2
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