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A grand challenge for the humanities and social sciences

In the 1970s experimental networks emerged from the university and were, at first gingerly, picked up by thegeneral public. At this stage the most interesting applications for these networks came out of the university world: the Ethernetprotocol was developed in Robert Metcalfe’s (initially unsuccessful) Harvard dissertation (1973); twenty years later, inApril 1993, Mosaic―the first graphical web browser, from which are descended all other browsers that we use today―was released fromthe National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. In the next year, Webtraffic grew at an annual rate of 341,634%.

Hobbes' Internet Timeline v8.0 (External Link) .
By 2004, just about a decade after Mosaic, the networks had becomecompletely public in nature, and they are now thoroughly naturalized by the public. According to the Pew Internet&American Life Project, more than 60% of Americans are online:

On a typical day at the end of 2004, some 70 million American adults logged onto the Internet to use email, getnews, access government information, check out health and medical information, participate in auctions, book travel reservations,research their genealogy, gamble, seek out romantic partners and engage in countless other activities. That represents a 37%increase from the 52 million adults who were online on an average day in 2000 when the Pew Internet&American Life Project began its study of online life. . . . The Web has become the “new normal”in the American way of life; those who don’t go online constitute an ever-shrinking minority.

By 2005, the Pew Survey reports, the percentage of American adults online had increased—in one year—from60% to 73%.

But it is teenagers (12-17) who have the highest share of Internetparticipation (87% are online): they regard e-mail as “something for ‘old people,’” and they have “embraced the online applicationsthat enable communicative, creative, and social uses. [They] aresignificantly more likely than older users to send and receive instant messages, play online games, create blogs, download music,and search for school information.”

The challenge for scholars and teachers is to ensure that they engage this outpouring of creative energy, seizethis openness to learning, and lead rather than follow in the design of this new cultural infrastructure. And, in fact, over thelast fifty years, a small but growing number of scholars in the humanities and social sciences have been using digital tools andtechnologies with increasing sophistication and innovation, transforming their practices of collaboration and communication.Some have been true media pioneers, testing the limits of the systems, policies, and funding sources that support digitalscholarship. These digital groundbreakers have provided breathtaking views into what could be achieved with a more robusthumanities and social science cyberinfrastructure. What new heights would be reached if a leveraged, coordinated investment, asoutlined in this report, were undertaken?

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, "our cultural commonwealth" the report of the american council of learned societies commission on cyberinfrastructure for the humanities and social sciences. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10391/1.2
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