<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Why would music drive plasticity in these networks? One idea is that music is often more exacting than other domains in terms of the degree of precision that it demands. For example, music and speech both involve the control of pitch, but music demands a higher degree of precision for both the control and perception of pitch than does ordinary speech (Patel, 2008, Ch. 4). Thus, musical experience may sharpen cortical and subcortical pitch processing mechanisms shared by music and language, leading to the observed superior processing of linguistic pitch contours by musicians (Wong et al., 2007; Patel and Iversen, 2007). Similar arguments may help explain why musically trained individuals show superior perception of speech in noise (Parbery-Clark et al., 2009) and other nonmusical auditory processing benefits.

Apart from the demands of high-precision processing, another factors that may promote music’s ability to drive plasticity is the fact that musical behaviors are often frequently repeated (e.g., frequently singing or playing a particular piece) and often involve heightened emotion. Repeatedly engaging in high-precision processing in the context of heightened emotion seems likely to promote functional and structural changes to the brain.

6. a non-genetic explanation for music’s universality

Thus far, this essay has argued that music is an invention. Yet if it is an invention, why is it universal in human culture? Section 3 pointed out that human cultural universals can originate as inventions, as illustrated by the control of fire. TTM theory posits that music resembles fire-making in being an ancient invention that has become universal because it provides things that are universally valued by humans. In the case of fire, these things include the ability to cook food, keep warm, and see in dark places. In the case of music, I suggest that the valued things it provides are mental rather than physical: namely, emotional power, ritual efficacy, and mnemonic efficacy.

6.1 emotional power

Many people report listening to music for the emotion it induces (Juslin and Sloboda, 2001; Benzon, 2001). Emotions are important for humans everywhere from the very beginning of life, and hence one reason for music’s universality may be its deep connection to the brain’s emotional circuitry (Peretz, 2010, Koelsch, 2010). This connection could help explain the human proclivity for music without postulating any “innate proclivity for musical sounds and actions” (Kirschner and Tomasello, in press).

However, this is a rather unsatisfying explanation for music’s universality, because it only serves to raise more questions. Why does music have these connections to the emotion circuits of our brains? Can the remarkable power of music to induce emotion be explained without appealing to an evolutionary specialization of the brain for music? In this regard, a recent theory of emotional induction by music is of interest (Juslin and Västfjäll, 2008). According to this “multiple mechanisms” theory, music can induce emotion in several different ways, namely via 1) expectancy and its fulfillment or violation; 2) activation of the brainstem by arousing acoustic features (e.g., sudden, sharp onsets); 3) association with past events; 4) visual imagery; or 5) acoustic cues that resemble the sounds of emotional voices. For the current purposes, the salient aspect of Juslin and Västfjäll’s theory is that none of the proposed emotion-inducing mechanisms is unique to music. For example, focusing on the first mechanism, auditory expectation and its relationship to emotion may be a very general aspect of human cognition, not shaped for music but exquisitely exploited by music (see Huron, 2006, for a detailed theory, and Steinbeis et al., 2006, for empirical data linking musical expectancy to emotion). Focusing on the final mechanism, the authors postulate that this aspect of music’s emotional power is due to brain mechanisms that evolved to perceive and respond to vocal affect (cf. Patel 2008b).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities. OpenStax CNX. May 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11201/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities' conversation and receive update notifications?