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  1. Not purchase any goods from a store unless you moved to Extramadura in Spain;
  2. Never use a bank;
  3. Not use a car or travel in a car;
  4. Not use a cellular phone (thought that is perhaps partly changing);
  5. Not listen to music in CD, DVD or MP3 format
  6. Not use electricity

etc. etc.

But even the most zealous admit that there are times when you need to use a computer or CPU powered device where there is no Free Software then you can do so.

To be a copyleft zealot in the content arena, and to interact only with Free Content, you would have to:

  1. Never read a magazine, newspaper or book
  2. Avoid looking at billboards by the roadside
  3. Not watch television or listen to radio
  4. Never look at a painting or any other work of art

Clearly, there is room in the world for copyright and protected works. But the issue is not use, but REUSE. The fully copyrighted works are not reusable. You have to consume them as they are, whole, and while you may display them via embed tags on other sites, that does not make you a content developer any more than selling televisions makes you a TV producer.

So, to be effective as tools in a constructivist learning approach, the content has to permit REUSE, that is it should be decomposable, remixable, and distributable usable without the need to load the original source. It is this reusability that gives F/OER the edge.

Regards, derek

39. klynip - june 8th, 2008 at 11:35 am

While I don’t think I have anything to add at this point, I do want to express my appreciation for it. It is helping to inform a current dialog at The University of Montana.

Ken: Glad to see Derek as a guest columnist here. Makes perfect sense. I read one of Derek’s white papers about two years ago and have found occasion to reference the points therein on a number of occasions.

40. patrick masson - june 8th, 2008 at 1:14 pm

Just wanted to add a practical example:

Amal Rowezak of Alfred State uses open source communities, rather than text books, for her computer science courses. Rather than requiring a text, the students must participate in a open project. I will try and point her here for more information.

41. derek keats - june 8th, 2008 at 6:40 pm

Patrick, it would be good to have the URL for Amal’s work. I am really keen to find good examples of reusability at the student level, since most of what is done in the F/OER space today still focuses on the professors. This from a bleary eyed scrag in Ann Arbor after 29 hours of travel.

42. ken udas - june 11th, 2008 at 6:02 am


I just wanted to mention that Christine Geith and I facilitated a session at the NUTN (National University Telecommunications Network) annual meeting yesterday (Tuesday). We used a WikiEducator as our presentation medium and workspace, which is open for modification and development. During the past week Christine and I modified our presentation significantly to include information included this blog post and expand on it, so it refers significantly to the Education 3.0 model to illustrate the role of OER and the Freedom culture in the changing nature of education.

Feel free to check out the OER and Open Education at NUTN 2008 resource page in WikiEducator, modify it, add resources, etc. Christine and I would like your thoughts on the materials we used and suggestions for improvement.

We invited the folks who attended the session to access the wiki and modify the content, build on it, etc. We rendered the Education 3.0 table “Educational generations in higher education” from the The genesis and emergence of Education 3.0 in higher education and its potential for Africa article in the wiki and invited folks to go in, add new characteristics (rows), and new descriptions of Education 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. We also invited folks to join us in this blog and participate in dialog. So, if you have joined us from the NUTN meeting, Welcome and please feel free to post questions, make comments, etc. here too.

Cheers, Ken

43. derek keats - june 22nd, 2008 at 2:39 pm

Sorry Ken, I did not see this post of yours as an email (maybe too much spam in my mailbox), so I assumed all was quiet. I guess we will all kind of continue this stuff in our own spaces. I will keep an eye on the WikiEducator. Does it allow HTML code snippets? I have been talkjng to Wayne about a way to include the presentations from (External Link) as resources in WikiEducator.

I will continue talking about Education 3.0 on my blog at (External Link) . I just posted some old tutorials on licenses. I am currently working on a little animation of how and why I went to University in 1972, two weeks after turning 17, as an illustration of Education 1.0. I will of course be available under BY-SA license as everything is in support of Free use of educational resources. I am also working on another paper on F/OER (Free / Open Eduacational Resources) that will be available in draft in about a week or so.

I thank everyone, lurkers and posters, for your contribution. Feel free to pop by my (External Link) site sometime an leave a note. I will keep this site on my blogroll.

All the best,


44. jakeruston - july 27th, 2008 at 6:17 am

While I don’t think I have anything to add at this point, I do want to express my appreciation for it. It is helping to inform a current dialog at The University of Montana.

Ken: Glad to see Derek as a guest columnist here. Makes perfect sense. I read one of Derek’s white papers about two years ago and have found occassion to reference the points therein on a number of occasions.


Jake Ruston,

(External Link) and (External Link)

45. paul - september 25th, 2008 at 4:23 am

Its evolution, a remarkable one if i may say the least. Internet and education, its a remarkable bond whose significance can be realized when we talk about having no resources but the internet and being able to have access to information of many libraries. Well that is just the simplest analogy that can be shown. Apparently with the online degree awarding bodies emerging on the internet not just the conventional art gained promotion but the unconventional ones were promoted like e.g.

(External Link)

although to a rapidly developing time un-conventionalism might not have boundaries yet it is the evolution of the man kind altogether that has brought up the science out of the art.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Source:  OpenStax, The impact of open source software on education. OpenStax CNX. Mar 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10431/1.7
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