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3. the visitor pattern

The visitor pattern is a pattern for communication and collaboration between two union patterns: a "host" union and a "visitor" union.  An abstract visitor is usually defined as an interface in Java.  It has a separate method for each of the concrete variant of the host union.  The abstract host has a method (called the "hook") to "accept" a visitor and leaves it up to each of its concrete variants to call the appropriate visitor method.  This "decoupling" of the host's structural behaviors from the extrinsic algorithms on the host permits the addition of infinitely many external algorithms without changing any of the host union code.  This extensibility only works if the taxonomy of the host union is stable and does not change.  If we have to modify the host union, then we will have to modify ALL visitors as well!


NOTE: All the "state-less" visitors, that is visitors that contain no non-static fields should be singletons.  Visitors that contain non-static fields should not be singletons.

4.  fundamental object-oriented design methodology (foodm)

  1. Identify and separate the variant and the invariant behaviors.
  2. Encapsulate the invariant behaviors into a system of classes.
  3. Add "hooks" to this class to define communication protocols with other classes.
  4. Encapsulate the variant behaviors into a union of classes that comply with the above protocols.

The result is a flexible system of co-operating objects that is not only reusable and extensible, but also easy to understand and maintain.

Let us illustrate the above process by applying it to the design of the immutable list structure and its algorithms.

  1. Here, the invariant is the intrinsic and primitive behavior of the list structure, IList , and the variants are the multitude of extrinsic and non-primitive algorithms that manipulate it, IListAlgo .
  2. The recursive list structure is implemented using the composite design pattern and encapsulated with a minimal and complete set of primitive structural operations:  getFirst() and getRest()
  3. The hook method Object execute(IListAlgo ago,  Object inp) defines the protocols for operating on the list structure. The hook works as if a IList announces to the outside world the following protocol: If you want me to execute your algorithm, encapsulate it into an object of type IListAlgo, hand it to me together with its inp object as parameters for my execute(). I will send your algorithm object the appropriate message for it to perform its task, and return you the result.
    • emptyCase(...) should be the part of the algorithm that deals with the case where I am empty.
    • nonEmptyCase(...) should be the part of the algorithm that deals with the case where I am not empty.”
  4. IListAlgo and all of its concrete implementations forms a union of algorithms classes that can be sent to the list structure for execution.

Below is the UML class diagram of the resulting list design.  Click here to see the full documentation.   Click here to see the code .

The above design is nothing but a special case of the Visitor Pattern .  The interface IList is called the host and its method execute() is called a " hook " to the IListAlgo visitors .  Via polymorphism, IList knows exactly what method to call on the specific IListAlgo visitor.  This design turns the list structure into a (miniature) framework where control is inverted: one hands an algorithm to the structure to be executed instead of handing a structure to an algorithm to perform a computation. Since an IListAlgo only interacts with the list on which it operates via the list’s public interface, the list structure is capable of carrying out any conforming algorithm, past, present, or future. This is how reusability and extensibility is achieved.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of object-oriented programming. OpenStax CNX. May 10, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10213/1.37
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