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The final emphasis on the tonic —the pitch that has represented stability, order and repose—brings a tonal movement to a close.

Pieces in Major almost inevitably end in Major. The reasons for this are both acoustic and psychological: The Major chord is very resonant, giving it an acoustic presence that is hard to top; the security and stability of tonic Major makes for a satisfying conclusion.

Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3 in E-Major, “Eroica,” begins by boldly proclaiming the tonic Major.

The movement ends decisively in Major.

At the close of his Symphony No. 5 in E-flat Major, Jean Sibelius waits until the last possible moment to give the final tonic chord.

Music in minor, on the other hand, is less predictable: There are three possibilities.

1. the work begins and ends in minor

In Ludwig van Beethoven’s Quartet in f-minor, Opus 95, “Serioso.” t he minor mode is established at the outset of the first movement.

This movement ends decisively in minor.

Johannes Brahms ends his Symphony No. 4 in e-minor in minor.

2. picardy third

The movement is in minor up until the last chord—where there is a sudden switch to tonic Major called a “Picardy third.” This prelude from J.S. Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I ends with a Picardy third .

Similarly, the first movement of Ludwig Van Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in c-minor switches to Major at the last chord.

3. there is a concluding passage or section in major.

Because the lengthened emphasis, the change of mode has more structural weight. You will most typically find this “negation” or “rejection” of minor in the Finale movements, giving the entire composition a more uplifting ending.

The piano alone introduces the primary theme of the Finale of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 20 in d-minor.

The final statement of the theme breaks off in the middle—and continues in Major! The entrance of the woodwinds heralds the shift in mode; the piano then follows suit.

This passage carries the music to a rousing conclusion in Major.

The Finale of Beethoven’s String Quartet in f-minor, Opus 95, “Serioso” opens solidly in minor.

The Quartet appears headed for a somber ending in minor. However, Beethoven takes a different tack from the first movement. Just as the Finale is about to come to an end, Beethoven prolongs it with an accelerated section in Major. You will hear the shift to Major in the held chords just before the fast closing section begins.

Because large orchestral works typically ended in a blaze of Major, Johannes Brahms’ ending for his Symphony No. 4 illustrated earlier was considered particularly “tragic.”

Throughout the Common Practice Era , tonal works return to the tonic for final closure. Thus, the harmonic voyage comes full circle, returning to its place of origin. Movements in Major almost invariably end in Major. Movements in minor are more equivocal. There are three options: a final cadence in minor; a switch to Major for the last chord; or a switch to Major for the concluding passage.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. May 31, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10214/1.21
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