<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

1743

American Philosophical Society founded

1790

American Academy of Arts and Sciences founded

1803-05

Lewis and Clark Expedition

1846

Smithsonian Institution founded

1848

American Association for the Advancement of Science founded

1862

Passage of Morrill Act, establishing land-grant colleges

Department of Agriculture established by Congress

1863

National Academy of Sciences chartered

1876

Johns Hopkins University founded

1878

Coast and Geodetic Survey established

U.S. Geological Survey established

1884-86

Allison Commission hearings

1890

Weather Bureau established

1902

National Bureau of Standards created

1912

Public Health Service created

1915

National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics established

1916

Emphasis on scientific facilities in State of the Union message

National Research Council established by executive order on a temporary basis

1918

National Research Council established on a permanent basis

1921

Bureau of the Budget established within Treasury Department

1923

Social Science Research Council created

Hygienic Laboratory within Public Health Service renamed National Institute of Health

1933

Science Advisory Board (Compton Board) established

1935

National Resources Committee established

Science Advisory Board expires

1937

President’s Committee on Administrative Management report released

1938

Relation of Federal Government to Research , vol. 1 of Research: a National Resource released

1939

Executive Office of the President (EoP) created

Bureau of the Budget moved from Treasury Department to EoP

1940

National Defense Research Committee established

1941

Office of Scientific Research and Development established

1945

Science—the Endless Frontier transmitted to President Truman

1946

Council of Economic Advisors created within EoP

Atomic Energy Commission created

Office of Naval Research created on permanent basis

President’s Scientific Research Board (Steelman Board) created

1947

Unification of Armed Forces with creation of Department of Defense

National Security Council created within EoP

Secretary of State Marshall announces plan for reconstruction of Europe

A Program for the Nation , vol. 1 of the Steelman Board’s Science and Public Policy , transmitted to President Truman

1948

National Institute of Health renamed National Institutes of Health

1949

Federal Council for Science and Technology established

1950

National Science Foundation created

1951

Science Advisory Committee to Office of Defense Mobilization created

1957

Soviet Union places Sputnik into orbit

President’s Science Advisory Committee established

1957

International Geophysical Year begins

1958

National Defense Education Act signed into law

Defense Advanced Project Agency created within DoD

1961

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency created

1962

Office of Science and Technology created within EoP

1963

Nuclear Test Ban treaty ratified by Congress

1970

Bureau of the Budget renamed Office of Management and Budget

Environmental Protection Agency created

1972

Office of Technology Assessment created

1973

Abolition of presidential science advisory system made public

First Asilomar conference

1975

Energy Research and Development Agency created, absorbing Atomic Energy Commission

Second Asilomar conference

1976

National Science and Technology Policy, Organization and Priorities Act (PL 94-282) signed into law, establishing: President’s Council on Science and Technology; Office of Science and Technology Policy; Federal Coordinating Committee for Science, Engineering and Technology (renamed Federal Council for Science and Technology)

1977

Department of Energy created

1980

Bayh Dole Act passed by Congress

1982

White House Science Council created

1983

Strategic Defense Initiative proposed

1990

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology created

1991

President’s Information Advisory Committee established

1992

Critical Technologies Institute created

1993

Government Performance and Results Act passed by Congress

1994

National Science and Technology Council created, absorbing and expanding membership of Federal Coordinating Committee for Science, Engineering and Technology

2001

National Nanotechnology Initiative approved by Congress

2007

America Competes Act passed by Congress

2009

American Recovery and Reinvention Act passed by Congress

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask