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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Clinical Issues in TB Management
Download Clinical Quiz PDF eBook
10 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Clinical Issues in TB Management Quiz

Question: From initiation of anti-TB medications, what's the median time of onset to see signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity?

Choices:

14 days from anti-TB initiation

28 days from anti-TB initiation

52 days from anti-TB initiation

More than 2 months from anti-TB initiation

Question: Most common biochemical abnormality observed in patients experiencing anti-TB drug induced liver injury

Choices:

ALT<<ALP

AST<<ALP

ALP<<ALT

ALT>>AST

Question: WHO definition of hepatotoxicity with ALT >500U/L

Choices:

Grade 4 hepatotoxicity

Grade 3 hepatotoxicity

Grade 2 hepatotoxicity

Grade 1 hepatotoxicity

Question: Which among the following TB infections require treating for more than 6 months?

Choices:

mesenteric tuberculosis

TB meningitis

TB of the ileum

scrofula

Question: In the event of anti-TB drug-induced liver injury, and serial LFT now <2x ULN, what would be the best option to do for a patient?

Choices:

reintroduce the anti-TB all at the same time

reintroduce each drug sequentially, at full dose every 3 days

reintroduce each drug component sequentially and in increments

wait further until LFT has normalized before reintroducing anti-TB meds

Question: Most notorious among anti-TB drugs to cause hypersensitivity reaction

Choices:

Isoniazid

Rifampicin

Streptomycin

Ethambutol

Question: A predictor of mortality in anti-TB drug-induced liver injury

Choices:

malnutrition

ascites

HIV positive

heavy alcohol intake

Question: Which among the first-line anti-TB medications have the least hepatotoxic potential?

Choices:

Isoniazid

Rifampicin

Ethambutol

Pyrazinamide

Question: A 45 year-old male came to you for consult due to a 3-week history of cough and progressive weight loss. Work-up revealed tuberculosis. He mentioned that he was also diagnosed with cirrhosis after consulting with his gastroenterologist a week ago and that all tests were normal. In starting anti-TB meds, which will you avoid?

Choices:

None. I will start the usual 4-drug regimen

I will have to avoid at least 2 of the most hepatotoxic drugs

I will not start a regimen with any hepatotoxic drug as he re mainsat risk for drug-induced liver injury

I will avoid pyrazinamide as this is the most hepatotoxic among the anti-TB drugs

Question: J.K., diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis of 2 years was referred to your clinic. She constantly complains of joint pains in spite of good compliance to medications. Her attending rheumatologist is requesting for an infectious disease clearance to start infliximab. What would be your next step?

Choices:

Give the clearance; infliximab does not increase the risk for any infection

Grant the clearance once a baseline chest radiograph is devoid of infiltrates

Will do both IGRA test and chest radiograph; if both are positive, will initiate anti-TB treatment and advise against infliximab

Will do both IGRA test and chest radiograph; if only the IGRA test is positive, will advise to complete isoniazid prophylaxis before starting infliximab

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