# 18.9 Occurrence, preparation, and compounds of oxygen  (Page 3/27)

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$\text{2Mg}\left(s\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{2MgO}\left(s\right)$
${\text{P}}_{4}\left(s\right)+5{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{P}}_{4}{\text{O}}_{10}\left(s\right)$

The oxides of halogens, at least one of the noble gases, and metals with higher reduction potentials than copper do not form by the direct action of the elements with oxygen.

## Reaction with compounds

Elemental oxygen also reacts with some compounds. If it is possible to oxidize any of the elements in a given compound, further oxidation by oxygen can occur. For example, hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S, contains sulfur with an oxidation state of 2−. Because the sulfur does not exhibit its maximum oxidation state, we would expect H 2 S to react with oxygen. It does, yielding water and sulfur dioxide. The reaction is:

$2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}\left(g\right)+3{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)+2{\text{SO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

It is also possible to oxidize oxides such as CO and P 4 O 6 that contain an element with a lower oxidation state. The ease with which elemental oxygen picks up electrons is mirrored by the difficulty of removing electrons from oxygen in most oxides. Of the elements, only the very reactive fluorine can oxidize oxides to form oxygen gas.

## Oxides, peroxides, and hydroxides

Compounds of the representative metals with oxygen fall into three categories: (1) oxides , containing oxide ions, O 2− ; (2) peroxides , containing peroxides ions, ${\text{O}}_{2}{}^{2-},$ with oxygen-oxygen covalent single bonds and a very limited number of superoxides , containing superoxide ions, ${\text{O}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}},$ with oxygen-oxygen covalent bonds that have a bond order of $1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{2},$ In addition, there are (3) hydroxides , containing hydroxide ions, OH . All representative metals form oxides. Some of the metals of group 2 also form peroxides, MO 2 , and the metals of group 1 also form peroxides, M 2 O 2 , and superoxides, MO 2 .

## Oxides

It is possible to produce the oxides of most representative metals by heating the corresponding hydroxides (forming the oxide and gaseous water) or carbonates (forming the oxide and gaseous CO 2 ). Equations for example reactions are:

$\text{2Al}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{3}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}}{\to }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Al}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\left(s\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)$
${\text{CaCO}}_{3}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}}{\to }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{CaO}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

However, alkali metal salts generally are very stable and do not decompose easily when heated. Alkali metal oxides result from the oxidation-reduction reactions created by heating nitrates or hydroxides with the metals. Equations for sample reactions are:

$2{\text{KNO}}_{3}\left(s\right)+\text{10K}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}}{\to }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}6{\text{K}}_{2}\text{O}\left(s\right)+{\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)$
$\text{2LiOH}\left(s\right)+\text{2Li}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}}{\to }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{Li}}_{2}\text{O}\left(s\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

With the exception of mercury(II) oxide, it is possible to produce the oxides of the metals of groups 2–15 by burning the corresponding metal in air. The heaviest member of each group, the member for which the inert pair effect is most pronounced, forms an oxide in which the oxidation state of the metal ion is two less than the group oxidation state (inert pair effect). Thus, Tl 2 O, PbO, and Bi 2 O 3 form when burning thallium, lead, and bismuth, respectively. The oxides of the lighter members of each group exhibit the group oxidation state. For example, SnO 2 forms from burning tin. Mercury(II) oxide, HgO, forms slowly when mercury is warmed below 500 °C; it decomposes at higher temperatures.

Burning the members of groups 1 and 2 in air is not a suitable way to form the oxides of these elements. These metals are reactive enough to combine with nitrogen in the air, so they form mixtures of oxides and ionic nitrides. Several also form peroxides or superoxides when heated in air.

who are the alchemist?
alchemy science of transmutation. typically it is aim at tranforming lead to or other base metals to gold and the creation of the philosophers stone which in reality isn't a stone it's something priceless something we all need for coming times. don't be fooled
Kendrick
read Corinthians 5 verses 50 to the end of the chapter then read revelations chapter 2 verse 17
Kendrick
The word "Alchemy" comes from the forgotten name for Ancient Egypt, Khemmet. Khem was the name for the Egyptian Empire, but the actual land of Egypt was called Khemmet because the "T" on the end of a word denoted a physical location on Earth and not just an idea.
Michael
Wow!
mendie
What's the mass number of carbon
Akinbola
mass number of carbon is 12.
Nnenna
wat d atomic number of oxygen
safiya
atomic number of oxygen is 8
Nnenna
which quantum number divides shell into orbitals?
azimuthal
Emmanuel
hi
Charlie
azimuthal
reinhard
azimuthal
Charlie
what is atom
an atom is a smallest indivisible part of an element
Henry
an atom is the smallest part of an element that takes part in a chemical reaction
Nana
wat is neutralization
when any acid reacts with base to decrease it's acidity or vice-versa to form salt and solvent.. which is called neutralization
Santosh
explain buffer
Organic
buffer is a solution which resists changes in pH when acid or alkali added to it..
Santosh
hello, who is online
UTHMAN
buffer is the solution which resist the change in pH by addition of small amount of acid or alkali to it
KAUSIK
neutralisation is the process of mixing of a acid and a base to form water and corresponding salt
KAUSIK
how to solve equation on this
what are the elent of ionic and covalent bonding
Princewill
what is gases
Its one of the fundamental sate of matter alone side with liquid, solid and plasma
John
What is chemical bonding
John
To my own definitions. It's a unit of measurement to express the amount of a chemical substance.
What is mole
It's the unit of measurements used to express the amount of chemical substance.
Ozoaniehe
What is pressure
force over area
Jake
force applied per unit area
john
force applied per unit area
Prajapati
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metals
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metal
Some metals will react depending on their Standard Electrode Potential. Carbonic acid is a very weak acid (i.e. a low hydrogen ion concentration) so the rate of reaction is very low.
Paul
sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
a sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
an object of weight 10N immersed in a liquid displaces a quantity of d liquid.if d liquid displaced weights 6N.determine d up thrust of the object
how human discover earth is not flat
We don't fall off. If set off in any direction in a straight line and keep going. You'll end up back where you started.
earth is spherical
Unique
Also, every other planet is spherical as that is the most energy efficient shape. gravity pulls equally on all areas. Sphere.