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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Derive the predicted ground-state electron configurations of atoms
  • Identify and explain exceptions to predicted electron configurations for atoms and ions
  • Relate electron configurations to element classifications in the periodic table

Having introduced the basics of atomic structure and quantum mechanics, we can use our understanding of quantum numbers to determine how atomic orbitals relate to one another. This allows us to determine which orbitals are occupied by electrons in each atom. The specific arrangement of electrons in orbitals of an atom determines many of the chemical properties of that atom.

Orbital energies and atomic structure

The energy of atomic orbitals increases as the principal quantum number, n , increases. In any atom with two or more electrons, the repulsion between the electrons makes energies of subshells with different values of l differ so that the energy of the orbitals increases within a shell in the order s < p < d < f. [link] depicts how these two trends in increasing energy relate. The 1 s orbital at the bottom of the diagram is the orbital with electrons of lowest energy. The energy increases as we move up to the 2 s and then 2 p , 3 s , and 3 p orbitals, showing that the increasing n value has more influence on energy than the increasing l value for small atoms. However, this pattern does not hold for larger atoms. The 3 d orbital is higher in energy than the 4 s orbital. Such overlaps continue to occur frequently as we move up the chart.

A table entitled, “Subshell electron capacity,” is shown. Along the left side of the table, an upward pointing arrow labeled, “E,” is drawn. The table includes three columns. The first column is narrow and is labeled, “2.” The second is slightly wider and is labeled, “6.” The third is slightly wider yet and is labeled, “10.” The fourth is the widest and is labeled, “14.” The first column begins at the very bottom with a horizontal line segment labeled “1 s.” Evenly spaced line segments continue up to 7 s near the top of the column. In the second column, a horizontal dashed line segment labeled, “2 p,” appears at a level between the 2 s and 3 s levels. Similarly 3 p appears at a level between 3 s and 4 s, 4 p appears just below 5 s, 5 p appears just below 6 s, and 6 p appears just below 7 s. In the third column, a dashed line labeled, “3 d,” appears just below the level of 4 p. Similarly, 4 d appears just below 5 p and 5 d appears just below 6 p. Six d however appears above the levels of both 6 p and 7 s. The far right column entries begin with a dashed line labeled, “4 f,” positioned at a level just below 5 d. Similarly, a second dashed line segment appears just below the level of 6 d, which is labeled, “5 f.”
Generalized energy-level diagram for atomic orbitals in an atom with two or more electrons (not to scale).

Electrons in successive atoms on the periodic table tend to fill low-energy orbitals first. Thus, many students find it confusing that, for example, the 5 p orbitals fill immediately after the 4 d , and immediately before the 6 s . The filling order is based on observed experimental results, and has been confirmed by theoretical calculations. As the principal quantum number, n , increases, the size of the orbital increases and the electrons spend more time farther from the nucleus. Thus, the attraction to the nucleus is weaker and the energy associated with the orbital is higher (less stabilized). But this is not the only effect we have to take into account. Within each shell, as the value of l increases, the electrons are less penetrating (meaning there is less electron density found close to the nucleus), in the order s > p > d > f . Electrons that are closer to the nucleus slightly repel electrons that are farther out, offsetting the more dominant electron–nucleus attractions slightly (recall that all electrons have −1 charges, but nuclei have + Z charges). This phenomenon is called shielding and will be discussed in more detail in the next section. Electrons in orbitals that experience more shielding are less stabilized and thus higher in energy. For small orbitals (1 s through 3 p ), the increase in energy due to n is more significant than the increase due to l ; however, for larger orbitals the two trends are comparable and cannot be simply predicted. We will discuss methods for remembering the observed order.

Questions & Answers

Types of electrolytes
Treasure Reply
Strong, weak and non-electrolytes
Grace
list 6 subatomic particles and their mass, speed and charges
Dubem Reply
combination of acid and base
Ayibiro Reply
that salt
Talhatu
calculate the mass in gram of NaOH present in 250cm3 of 0.1mol/dm3 of its solution
Omego Reply
The mass is 1.0grams. First you multiply the molecular weight and molarity which is 39.997g/mol x 0.1mol/dm3= 3.9997g/dm3. Then you convert dm3 to cm3. 1dm3 =1000cm3. In this case you would divide 3.9997 by 1000 which would give you 3.9997*10^-3 g/cm3. To get the mass you multiply 3.9997*10^-3 and
Kokana
250cm3 and get the mass as .999925, with significant figures the answer is 1.0 grams
Kokana
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and Bismuth
faith Reply
What is d electronic configuration of for group 5
Miracle Reply
Can I know d electronic configuration of for group 5 elements
Miracle
2:5, 2:8:5, 2:8:8:5,...
Maxime
Thanks
Miracle
Pls what are d names of elements found in group 5
Miracle
define define. define
Muh Reply
what is enthalpy
Ayilaran Reply
total heat contents of the system is called enthalpy, it is state function.
Sajid
background of chemistry
Banji Reply
what is the hybridisation of carbon in formic acid?
Maham Reply
sp2 hybridization
Johnson
what is the first element
Josh Reply
HYDROGEN
Liklai
Element that has positive charge and its non metal Name the element
Liklai
helium
oga
sulphur
oga
hydrogen
Banji
account for the properties of organic compounds
mercy Reply
properties of organic compounds
mercy
what's the difference between molecules and compounds
Amha Reply
A compound can be a molecule however compounds must contain more than one element. For example ozone, O3 is a molecule but not a compound.
Justin
what is che? nd what is mistry?
Mukhtar
What's elixir?
EMEKA Reply
An Elixir is a substance held capable of changing base metals into Gold.
Nwafor
Give an example for each of the six groups of element
Francis Reply
Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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