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Key concepts and summary

The strength of a covalent bond is measured by its bond dissociation energy, that is, the amount of energy required to break that particular bond in a mole of molecules. Multiple bonds are stronger than single bonds between the same atoms. The enthalpy of a reaction can be estimated based on the energy input required to break bonds and the energy released when new bonds are formed. For ionic bonds, the lattice energy is the energy required to separate one mole of a compound into its gas phase ions. Lattice energy increases for ions with higher charges and shorter distances between ions. Lattice energies are often calculated using the Born-Haber cycle, a thermochemical cycle including all of the energetic steps involved in converting elements into an ionic compound.

Key equations

  • Bond energy for a diatomic molecule: XY ( g ) X ( g ) + Y ( g ) D X–Y = Δ H °
  • Enthalpy change: Δ H = ƩD bonds broken – ƩD bonds formed
  • Lattice energy for a solid MX: MX ( s ) M n + ( g ) + X n ( g ) Δ H lattice
  • Lattice energy for an ionic crystal: Δ H lattice = C ( Z + ) ( Z ) R o

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Which bond in each of the following pairs of bonds is the strongest?

(a) C–C or C = C

(b) C–N or C N

(c) C O or C = O

(d) H–F or H–Cl

(e) C–H or O–H

(f) C–N or C–O

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Using the bond energies in [link] , determine the approximate enthalpy change for each of the following reactions:

(a) H 2 ( g ) + Br 2 ( g ) 2 HBr ( g )

(b) CH 4 ( g ) + I 2 ( g ) CH 3 I ( g ) + HI ( g )

(c) C 2 H 4 ( g ) + 3 O 2 ( g ) 2 CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )

(a) −114 kJ;
(b) 30 kJ;
(c) −1055 kJ

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Using the bond energies in [link] , determine the approximate enthalpy change for each of the following reactions:

(a) Cl 2 ( g ) + 3 F 2 ( g ) 2 ClF 3 ( g )

(b) H 2 C = CH 2 ( g ) + H 2 ( g ) H 3 CCH 3 ( g )

(c) 2 C 2 H 6 ( g ) + 7 O 2 ( g ) 4 CO 2 ( g ) + 6 H 2 O ( g )

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When a molecule can form two different structures, the structure with the stronger bonds is usually the more stable form. Use bond energies to predict the correct structure of the hydroxylamine molecule:

Two Lewis structures are shows with the word “or” written in between them. The left structure shows a nitrogen atom with one lone pair of electrons single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. It is also bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The right structure shows a nitrogen atom single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom with three lone pairs of electrons.

The greater bond energy is in the figure on the left. It is the more stable form.

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How does the bond energy of HCl( g ) differ from the standard enthalpy of formation of HCl( g )?

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Using the standard enthalpy of formation data in Appendix G , show how the standard enthalpy of formation of HCl( g ) can be used to determine the bond energy.


HCl ( g ) 1 2 H 2 ( g ) + 1 2 Cl 2 ( g ) Δ H 1 ° = −Δ H f [ HCl ( g ) ] ° 1 2 H 2 ( g ) H ( g ) Δ H 2 ° = Δ H f [ H ( g ) ] ° 1 2 Cl 2 ( g ) Cl ( g ) Δ H 3 ° = Δ H f [ Cl ( g ) ] ° ¯ HCl ( g ) H ( g ) + Cl ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = Δ H 1 ° + Δ H 2 ° + Δ H 3 °
D HCl = Δ H 298 ° = Δ H f [ HCl ( g ) ] ° + Δ H f [ H ( g ) ] ° + Δ H f [ Cl ( g ) ] ° = ( −92.307 kJ ) + 217.97 kJ + 121.3 kJ = 431.6 kJ

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Using the standard enthalpy of formation data in Appendix G , calculate the bond energy of the carbon-sulfur double bond in CS 2 .

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Using the standard enthalpy of formation data in Appendix G , determine which bond is stronger: the S–F bond in SF 4 ( g ) or in SF 6 ( g )?

The S–F bond in SF 4 is stronger.

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Using the standard enthalpy of formation data in Appendix G , determine which bond is stronger: the P–Cl bond in PCl 3 ( g ) or in PCl 5 ( g )?

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Complete the following Lewis structure by adding bonds (not atoms), and then indicate the longest bond:

A Lewis structure is shown that is missing its bonds. It shows a horizontal row of six carbon atoms, equally spaced. Three hydrogen atoms are drawn around the first carbon, two around the second, one above the fifth, and two by the sixth.

 
A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom that is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms is bonded to a second carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The second carbon atom is single bonded to a third carbon atom that is triple bonded to a fourth carbon atom and single bonded to a fifth carbon atom. The fifth carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and double bonded to a sixth carbon atom that is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
The C–C single bonds are longest.

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Use the bond energy to calculate an approximate value of Δ H for the following reaction. Which is the more stable form of FNO 2 ?

Two Lewis structures are shown with a right-facing arrow in between. The left structure shows a nitrogen atom double bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. It is also bonded to a fluorine atom and another oxygen atom, each with three lone pairs of electrons. The right structure shows an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons double bonded to a nitrogen atom with one lone pair of electrons. This nitrogen atom is single bonded to an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is single bonded to a fluorine atom with three lone pairs of electrons.
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Use principles of atomic structure to answer each of the following: This question is taken from the Chemistry Advanced Placement Examination and is used with the permission of the Educational Testing Service.

(a) The radius of the Ca atom is 197 pm; the radius of the Ca 2+ ion is 99 pm. Account for the difference.

(b) The lattice energy of CaO( s ) is –3460 kJ/mol; the lattice energy of K 2 O is –2240 kJ/mol. Account for the difference.

(c) Given these ionization values, explain the difference between Ca and K with regard to their first and second ionization energies.

Element First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) Second Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)
K 419 3050
Ca 590 1140

(d) The first ionization energy of Mg is 738 kJ/mol and that of Al is 578 kJ/mol. Account for this difference.

(a) When two electrons are removed from the valence shell, the Ca radius loses the outermost energy level and reverts to the lower n = 3 level, which is much smaller in radius. (b) The +2 charge on calcium pulls the oxygen much closer compared with K, thereby increasing the lattice energy relative to a less charged ion. (c) Removal of the 4 s electron in Ca requires more energy than removal of the 4 s electron in K because of the stronger attraction of the nucleus and the extra energy required to break the pairing of the electrons. The second ionization energy for K requires that an electron be removed from a lower energy level, where the attraction is much stronger from the nucleus for the electron. In addition, energy is required to unpair two electrons in a full orbital. For Ca, the second ionization potential requires removing only a lone electron in the exposed outer energy level. (d) In Al, the removed electron is relatively unprotected and unpaired in a p orbital. The higher energy for Mg mainly reflects the unpairing of the 2 s electron.

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The lattice energy of LiF is 1023 kJ/mol, and the Li–F distance is 200.8 pm. NaF crystallizes in the same structure as LiF but with a Na–F distance of 231 pm. Which of the following values most closely approximates the lattice energy of NaF: 510, 890, 1023, 1175, or 4090 kJ/mol? Explain your choice.

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For which of the following substances is the least energy required to convert one mole of the solid into separate ions?

(a) MgO

(b) SrO

(c) KF

(d) CsF

(e) MgF 2

(d)

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The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X 2 , proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M ( s ) + X 2 ( g ) MX 2 ( s ) . For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.

(a) a large radius vs. a small radius for M +2

(b) a high ionization energy vs. a low ionization energy for M

(c) an increasing bond energy for the halogen

(d) a decreasing electron affinity for the halogen

(e) an increasing size of the anion formed by the halogen

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The lattice energy of LiF is 1023 kJ/mol, and the Li–F distance is 201 pm. MgO crystallizes in the same structure as LiF but with a Mg–O distance of 205 pm. Which of the following values most closely approximates the lattice energy of MgO: 256 kJ/mol, 512 kJ/mol, 1023 kJ/mol, 2046 kJ/mol, or 4008 kJ/mol? Explain your choice.

4008 kJ/mol; both ions in MgO have twice the charge of the ions in LiF; the bond length is very similar and both have the same structure; a quadrupling of the energy is expected based on the equation for lattice energy

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Which compound in each of the following pairs has the larger lattice energy? Note: Mg 2+ and Li + have similar radii; O 2– and F have similar radii. Explain your choices.

(a) MgO or MgSe

(b) LiF or MgO

(c) Li 2 O or LiCl

(d) Li 2 Se or MgO

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Which compound in each of the following pairs has the larger lattice energy? Note: Ba 2+ and

K + have similar radii; S 2– and Cl have similar radii. Explain your choices.

(a) K 2 O or Na 2 O

(b) K 2 S or BaS

(c) KCl or BaS

(d) BaS or BaCl 2

(a) Na 2 O; Na + has a smaller radius than K + ; (b) BaS; Ba has a larger charge than K; (c) BaS; Ba and S have larger charges; (d) BaS; S has a larger charge

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Which of the following compounds requires the most energy to convert one mole of the solid into separate ions?

(a) MgO

(b) SrO

(c) KF

(d) CsF

(e) MgF 2

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Which of the following compounds requires the most energy to convert one mole of the solid into separate ions?

(a) K 2 S

(b) K 2 O

(c) CaS

(d) Cs 2 S

(e) CaO

(e)

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The lattice energy of KF is 794 kJ/mol, and the interionic distance is 269 pm. The Na–F

distance in NaF, which has the same structure as KF, is 231 pm. Which of the following values is the closest approximation of the lattice energy of NaF: 682 kJ/mol, 794 kJ/mol, 924 kJ/mol, 1588 kJ/mol, or 3175 kJ/mol? Explain your answer.

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Questions & Answers

what is hybridization
Laura Reply
the mixing of atomic orbitals to form molecular of similar energy called hybrid orbitals
Cffrrcvccgg
who are the alchemist?
Victor Reply
alchemy science of transmutation. typically it is aim at tranforming lead to or other base metals to gold and the creation of the philosophers stone which in reality isn't a stone it's something priceless something we all need for coming times. don't be fooled
Kendrick
read Corinthians 5 verses 50 to the end of the chapter then read revelations chapter 2 verse 17
Kendrick
The word "Alchemy" comes from the forgotten name for Ancient Egypt, Khemmet. Khem was the name for the Egyptian Empire, but the actual land of Egypt was called Khemmet because the "T" on the end of a word denoted a physical location on Earth and not just an idea.
Michael
Wow!
mendie
What's the mass number of carbon
Charlie Reply
first Faraday's law
Akinbola
mass number of carbon is 12.
Nnenna
wat d atomic number of oxygen
safiya
atomic number of oxygen is 8
Nnenna
which quantum number divides shell into orbitals?
Tomiwa Reply
azimuthal
Emmanuel
hi
Charlie
azimuthal
reinhard
azimuthal
Charlie
what is atom
Desmond Reply
an atom is a smallest indivisible part of an element
Henry
an atom is the smallest part of an element that takes part in a chemical reaction
Nana
wat is neutralization
Dubem Reply
when any acid reacts with base to decrease it's acidity or vice-versa to form salt and solvent.. which is called neutralization
Santosh
explain buffer
Organic
buffer is a solution which resists changes in pH when acid or alkali added to it..
Santosh
hello, who is online
UTHMAN
buffer is the solution which resist the change in pH by addition of small amount of acid or alkali to it
KAUSIK
neutralisation is the process of mixing of a acid and a base to form water and corresponding salt
KAUSIK
how to solve equation on this
Princewill Reply
what are the elent of ionic and covalent bonding
Princewill
what is gases
Wesike Reply
Its one of the fundamental sate of matter alone side with liquid, solid and plasma
John
What is chemical bonding
John
To my own definitions. It's a unit of measurement to express the amount of a chemical substance.
Ozoaniehe Reply
What is mole
TAMIL Reply
It's the unit of measurements used to express the amount of chemical substance.
Ozoaniehe
What is pressure
Stellamaris Reply
force over area
Jake
force applied per unit area
john
force applied per unit area
Prajapati
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metals
Aditya Reply
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metal
Aditya
Some metals will react depending on their Standard Electrode Potential. Carbonic acid is a very weak acid (i.e. a low hydrogen ion concentration) so the rate of reaction is very low.
Paul
sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Emokiniovo Reply
a sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Sharmin Reply
an object of weight 10N immersed in a liquid displaces a quantity of d liquid.if d liquid displaced weights 6N.determine d up thrust of the object
ugonna Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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