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2NaF ( s ) + SiF 4 ( g ) Na 2 SiF 6 ( s )

Antimony reacts readily with stoichiometric amounts of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine, yielding trihalides or, with excess fluorine or chlorine, forming the pentahalides SbF 5 and SbCl 5 . Depending on the stoichiometry, it forms antimony(III) sulfide, Sb 2 S 3 , or antimony(V) sulfide when heated with sulfur. As expected, the metallic nature of the element is greater than that of arsenic, which lies immediately above it in group 15.

Boron and silicon halides

Boron trihalides—BF 3 , BCl 3 , BBr 3 , and BI 3 —can be prepared by the direct reaction of the elements. These nonpolar molecules contain boron with sp 2 hybridization and a trigonal planar molecular geometry. The fluoride and chloride compounds are colorless gasses, the bromide is a liquid, and the iodide is a white crystalline solid.

Except for boron trifluoride, the boron trihalides readily hydrolyze in water to form boric acid and the corresponding hydrohalic acid. Boron trichloride reacts according to the equation:

BCl 3 ( g ) + 3H 2 O ( l ) B (OH) 3 ( a q ) + 3HCl ( a q )

Boron trifluoride reacts with hydrofluoric acid, to yield a solution of fluoroboric acid, HBF 4 :

BF 3 ( a q ) + HF ( a q ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( a q ) + BF 4 ( a q )

In this reaction, the BF 3 molecule acts as the Lewis acid (electron pair acceptor) and accepts a pair of electrons from a fluoride ion:

Two Lewis structures are drawn and connected by a right-facing arrow. The left structure shows a boron atom surrounded by four fluorine atoms, each with four lone pairs of electrons. The left fluorine atom has a positive and negative symbol drawn next to it. The second image is the same as the first except the positive and negative signs are missing and the entire structure is surrounded by brackets. There is a negative sign outside and superscript to the brackets.

All the tetrahalides of silicon, SiX 4 , have been prepared. Silicon tetrachloride can be prepared by direct chlorination at elevated temperatures or by heating silicon dioxide with chlorine and carbon:

SiO 2 ( s ) + 2C ( s ) + 2Cl 2 ( g ) Δ SiCl 4 ( g ) + 2CO ( g )

Silicon tetrachloride is a covalent tetrahedral molecule, which is a nonpolar, low-boiling (57 °C), colorless liquid.

It is possible to prepare silicon tetrafluoride by the reaction of silicon dioxide with hydrofluoric acid:

SiO 2 ( s ) + 4HF ( g ) SiF 4 ( g ) + 2H 2 O ( l ) Δ H ° = −191.2 kJ

Hydrofluoric acid is the only common acid that will react with silicon dioxide or silicates. This reaction occurs because the silicon-fluorine bond is the only bond that silicon forms that is stronger than the silicon-oxygen bond. For this reason, it is possible to store all common acids, other than hydrofluoric acid, in glass containers.

Except for silicon tetrafluoride, silicon halides are extremely sensitive to water. Upon exposure to water, SiCl 4 reacts rapidly with hydroxide groups, replacing all four chlorine atoms to produce unstable orthosilicic acid, Si(OH) 4 or H 4 SiO 4 , which slowly decomposes into SiO 2 .

Boron and silicon oxides and derivatives

Boron burns at 700 °C in oxygen, forming boric oxide, B 2 O 3 . Boric oxide is necessary for the production of heat-resistant borosilicate glass, like that shown in [link] and certain optical glasses. Boric oxide dissolves in hot water to form boric acid, B(OH) 3 :

B 2 O 3 ( s ) + 3H 2 O ( l ) 2B (OH) 3 ( a q )
A photo of beakers, flasks, and graduated cylinders is shown. Each piece of glassware holds a different color liquid.
Laboratory glassware, such as Pyrex and Kimax, is made of borosilicate glass because it does not break when heated. The inclusion of borates in the glass helps to mediate the effects of thermal expansion and contraction. This reduces the likelihood of thermal shock, which causes silicate glass to crack upon rapid heating or cooling. (credit: “Tweenk”/Wikimedia Commons)

Questions & Answers

who are the alchemist?
Victor Reply
alchemy science of transmutation. typically it is aim at tranforming lead to or other base metals to gold and the creation of the philosophers stone which in reality isn't a stone it's something priceless something we all need for coming times. don't be fooled
Kendrick
read Corinthians 5 verses 50 to the end of the chapter then read revelations chapter 2 verse 17
Kendrick
The word "Alchemy" comes from the forgotten name for Ancient Egypt, Khemmet. Khem was the name for the Egyptian Empire, but the actual land of Egypt was called Khemmet because the "T" on the end of a word denoted a physical location on Earth and not just an idea.
Michael
Wow!
mendie
What's the mass number of carbon
Charlie Reply
first Faraday's law
Akinbola
mass number of carbon is 12.
Nnenna
wat d atomic number of oxygen
safiya
atomic number of oxygen is 8
Nnenna
which quantum number divides shell into orbitals?
Tomiwa Reply
azimuthal
Emmanuel
hi
Charlie
azimuthal
reinhard
azimuthal
Charlie
what is atom
Desmond Reply
an atom is a smallest indivisible part of an element
Henry
an atom is the smallest part of an element that takes part in a chemical reaction
Nana
wat is neutralization
Dubem Reply
when any acid reacts with base to decrease it's acidity or vice-versa to form salt and solvent.. which is called neutralization
Santosh
explain buffer
Organic
buffer is a solution which resists changes in pH when acid or alkali added to it..
Santosh
hello, who is online
UTHMAN
buffer is the solution which resist the change in pH by addition of small amount of acid or alkali to it
KAUSIK
neutralisation is the process of mixing of a acid and a base to form water and corresponding salt
KAUSIK
how to solve equation on this
Princewill Reply
what are the elent of ionic and covalent bonding
Princewill
what is gases
Wesike Reply
Its one of the fundamental sate of matter alone side with liquid, solid and plasma
John
What is chemical bonding
John
To my own definitions. It's a unit of measurement to express the amount of a chemical substance.
Ozoaniehe Reply
What is mole
TAMIL Reply
It's the unit of measurements used to express the amount of chemical substance.
Ozoaniehe
What is pressure
Stellamaris Reply
force over area
Jake
force applied per unit area
john
force applied per unit area
Prajapati
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metals
Aditya Reply
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metal
Aditya
Some metals will react depending on their Standard Electrode Potential. Carbonic acid is a very weak acid (i.e. a low hydrogen ion concentration) so the rate of reaction is very low.
Paul
sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Emokiniovo Reply
a sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Sharmin Reply
an object of weight 10N immersed in a liquid displaces a quantity of d liquid.if d liquid displaced weights 6N.determine d up thrust of the object
ugonna Reply
how human discover earth is not flat
Jason Reply
We don't fall off. If set off in any direction in a straight line and keep going. You'll end up back where you started.
Adelle
earth is spherical
Unique
Also, every other planet is spherical as that is the most energy efficient shape. gravity pulls equally on all areas. Sphere.
Adelle
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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