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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom
  • Use the Rydberg equation to calculate energies of light emitted or absorbed by hydrogen atoms

Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei surrounded by lighter and even tinier electrons continually moving about the nucleus was well established. This picture was called the planetary model, since it pictured the atom as a miniature “solar system” with the electrons orbiting the nucleus like planets orbiting the sun. The simplest atom is hydrogen, consisting of a single proton as the nucleus about which a single electron moves. The electrostatic force attracting the electron to the proton depends only on the distance between the two particles. The electrostatic force has the same form as the gravitational force between two mass particles except that the electrostatic force depends on the magnitudes of the charges on the particles (+1 for the proton and −1 for the electron) instead of the magnitudes of the particle masses that govern the gravitational force. Since forces can be derived from potentials, it is convenient to work with potentials instead, since they are forms of energy. The electrostatic potential is also called the Coulomb potential. Because the electrostatic potential has the same form as the gravitational potential, according to classical mechanics, the equations of motion should be similar, with the electron moving around the nucleus in circular or elliptical orbits (hence the label “planetary” model of the atom). Potentials of the form V ( r ) that depend only on the radial distance r are known as central potentials. Central potentials have spherical symmetry, and so rather than specifying the position of the electron in the usual Cartesian coordinates ( x , y , z ), it is more convenient to use polar spherical coordinates centered at the nucleus, consisting of a linear coordinate r and two angular coordinates, usually specified by the Greek letters theta (θ) and phi ( Φ ). These coordinates are similar to the ones used in GPS devices and most smart phones that track positions on our (nearly) spherical earth, with the two angular coordinates specified by the latitude and longitude, and the linear coordinate specified by sea-level elevation. Because of the spherical symmetry of central potentials, the energy and angular momentum of the classical hydrogen atom are constants, and the orbits are constrained to lie in a plane like the planets orbiting the sun. This classical mechanics description of the atom is incomplete, however, since an electron moving in an elliptical orbit would be accelerating (by changing direction) and, according to classical electromagnetism, it should continuously emit electromagnetic radiation. This loss in orbital energy should result in the electron’s orbit getting continually smaller until it spirals into the nucleus, implying that atoms are inherently unstable.

Questions & Answers

What is pressure
Stellamaris Reply
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metals
Aditya Reply
Why does carbonic acid don't react with metal
Some metals will react depending on their Standard Electrode Potential. Carbonic acid is a very weak acid (i.e. a low hydrogen ion concentration) so the rate of reaction is very low.
sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Emokiniovo Reply
a sample of carbon-12 has a mass of 6.00g. How many atoms of carbon-12 are in the sample
Sharmin Reply
an object of weight 10N immersed in a liquid displaces a quantity of d liquid.if d liquid displaced weights 6N.determine d up thrust of the object
ugonna Reply
how human discover earth is not flat
Jason Reply
We don't fall off. If set off in any direction in a straight line and keep going. You'll end up back where you started.
earth is spherical
Also, every other planet is spherical as that is the most energy efficient shape. gravity pulls equally on all areas. Sphere.
what is an ion
Unique Reply
an atom that loses or gains an electron. Atoms normally have the same number of protons and electrons, therefore there is no charge as each + cancels out each -. When an atom loses an electron, it has more protons that electrons. Therefore the ion is called positive.
When an atom gains electrons it has more of them than protons. Therefore the ion is negative. You cannot change the number of protons as this results in a different element.
Gaining or losing electrons is based around the octet rule. 8 electrons in the outer shell is the most stable electron configuration (for the first three rows in the periodic table. After that it gets confusing so don't worry) So all atoms want to achieve this configuration.
Wat is chemical bonding
Precious Reply
how to determine the number of atoms and the mass of zirconium, silicon, and oxygen found in 0.3384 mol of zircon4
Denisha Reply
can you please help
what is a catalyst
William Reply
A substance that speeds up the rate of a given reaction but does not react with any reactants
something that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up itself. It lowers the activation energy
something that speed up a chemical reaction without its self been used
A catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction.. Meaning it can slow down a reaction or speeden it but it remains unchanged at the end of the reaction
anything that speed up the rate of chemical reaction but it not being produced or consumed by the reaction
Faraday's first law of electrolysis state that...
Mgbachi Reply
the mass of a substance librated during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passing through the electrolyte
another question
gud one pls write it mathematically
How can ionic bonds dissociate in aqueous solution
Andrew Reply
Because of the polarity of both ionic compounds and water the ionic compound will dissolve as "like dissolves like", and the molecule forms bonds with the water.
are all aqueous solutions water contained?
No, but a lot are.
it dissociate when d metal is combined wit oxygen
I wanna understand more about isomers
Emmanuel Reply
Isomers are essentially the same molecules of one particular substance, except with different bonding points along the molecule. if you want a better example, look up xylene, p-xylene, and m-xylene. isomers are more for organic chemistry
what is catenation
Oladuji Reply
The property of carbon to form long chain with other atom!
hydrocarbons can be classified as..1.Aliphatic compounds 2.cyclic compounds.under aliphatic compounds there are two types saturated hydrocarbons(alkanes) and unsaturated hydrocarbons(alkenes and alkynes).
Niroshan Reply
thanks but i have also heard of aromatic hydrocarbons
so am kinda confused
hydrocarbons are classified into 2 namely: aliphatic compound and aromatic compound
aliphatic compound and aromatic compound
Practice Key Terms 4

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