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Key equations

  • c = λν
  • E = h ν = h c λ , where h = 6.626 × 10 −34 J s
  • 1 λ = R ( 1 n 1 2 1 n 2 2 )

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

The light produced by a red neon sign is due to the emission of light by excited neon atoms. Qualitatively describe the spectrum produced by passing light from a neon lamp through a prism.

The spectrum consists of colored lines, at least one of which (probably the brightest) is red.

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An FM radio station found at 103.1 on the FM dial broadcasts at a frequency of 1.031 × 10 8 s −1 (103.1 MHz). What is the wavelength of these radio waves in meters?

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FM-95, an FM radio station, broadcasts at a frequency of 9.51 × 10 7 s −1 (95.1 MHz). What is the wavelength of these radio waves in meters?

3.15 m

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A bright violet line occurs at 435.8 nm in the emission spectrum of mercury vapor. What amount of energy, in joules, must be released by an electron in a mercury atom to produce a photon of this light?

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Light with a wavelength of 614.5 nm looks orange. What is the energy, in joules, per photon of this orange light? What is the energy in eV (1 eV = 1.602 × 10 −19 J)?

3.233 × 10 −19 J; 2.018 eV

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Heated lithium atoms emit photons of light with an energy of 2.961 × 10 −19 J. Calculate the frequency and wavelength of one of these photons. What is the total energy in 1 mole of these photons? What is the color of the emitted light?

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A photon of light produced by a surgical laser has an energy of 3.027 × 10 −19 J. Calculate the frequency and wavelength of the photon. What is the total energy in 1 mole of photons? What is the color of the emitted light?

ν = 4.568 × 10 14 s; λ = 656.3 nm; Energy mol −1 = 1.823 × 10 5 J mol −1 ; red

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When rubidium ions are heated to a high temperature, two lines are observed in its line spectrum at wavelengths (a) 7.9 × 10 −7 m and (b) 4.2 × 10 −7 m. What are the frequencies of the two lines? What color do we see when we heat a rubidium compound?

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The emission spectrum of cesium contains two lines whose frequencies are (a) 3.45 × 10 14 Hz and (b) 6.53 × 10 14 Hz. What are the wavelengths and energies per photon of the two lines? What color are the lines?

(a) λ = 8.69 × 10 −7 m; E = 2.29 × 10 −19 J; (b) λ = 4.59 × 10 −7 m; E = 4.33 × 10 −19 J; The color of (a) is red; (b) is blue.

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Photons of infrared radiation are responsible for much of the warmth we feel when holding our hands before a fire. These photons will also warm other objects. How many infrared photons with a wavelength of 1.5 × 10 −6 m must be absorbed by the water to warm a cup of water (175 g) from 25.0 °C to 40 °C?

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One of the radiographic devices used in a dentist's office emits an X-ray of wavelength 2.090 × 10 −11 m. What is the energy, in joules, and frequency of this X-ray?

E = 9.502 × 10 −15 J; ν = 1.434 × 10 19 s −1

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The eyes of certain reptiles pass a single visual signal to the brain when the visual receptors are struck by photons of a wavelength of 850 nm. If a total energy of 3.15 × 10 −14 J is required to trip the signal, what is the minimum number of photons that must strike the receptor?

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RGB color television and computer displays use cathode ray tubes that produce colors by mixing red, green, and blue light. If we look at the screen with a magnifying glass, we can see individual dots turn on and off as the colors change. Using a spectrum of visible light, determine the approximate wavelength of each of these colors. What is the frequency and energy of a photon of each of these colors?

Red: 660 nm; 4.54 × 10 14 Hz; 3.01 × 10 −19 J. Green: 520 nm; 5.77 × 10 14 Hz; 3.82 × 10 −19 J. Blue: 440 nm; 6.81 × 10 14 Hz; 4.51 × 10 −19 J. Somewhat different numbers are also possible.

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Answer the following questions about a Blu-ray laser:

(a) The laser on a Blu-ray player has a wavelength of 405 nm. In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum is this radiation? What is its frequency?

(b) A Blu-ray laser has a power of 5 milliwatts (1 watt = 1 J s −1 ). How many photons of light are produced by the laser in 1 hour?

(c) The ideal resolution of a player using a laser (such as a Blu-ray player), which determines how close together data can be stored on a compact disk, is determined using the following formula: Resolution = 0.60( λ /NA), where λ is the wavelength of the laser and NA is the numerical aperture. Numerical aperture is a measure of the size of the spot of light on the disk; the larger the NA, the smaller the spot. In a typical Blu-ray system, NA = 0.95. If the 405-nm laser is used in a Blu-ray player, what is the closest that information can be stored on a Blu-ray disk?

(d) The data density of a Blu-ray disk using a 405-nm laser is 1.5 × 10 7 bits mm −2 . Disks have an outside diameter of 120 mm and a hole of 15-mm diameter. How many data bits can be contained on the disk? If a Blu-ray disk can hold 9,400,000 pages of text, how many data bits are needed for a typed page? (Hint: Determine the area of the disk that is available to hold data. The area inside a circle is given by A = πr 2 , where the radius r is one-half of the diameter.)

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What is the threshold frequency for sodium metal if a photon with frequency 6.66 × 10 14 s −1 ejects an electron with 7.74 × 10 −20 J kinetic energy? Will the photoelectric effect be observed if sodium is exposed to orange light?

5.49 × 10 14 s −1 ; no

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Questions & Answers

calculate the mass in gram of NaOH present in 250cm3 of 0.1mol/dm3 of its solution
Omego Reply
The mass is 1.0grams. First you multiply the molecular weight and molarity which is 39.997g/mol x 0.1mol/dm3= 3.9997g/dm3. Then you convert dm3 to cm3. 1dm3 =1000cm3. In this case you would divide 3.9997 by 1000 which would give you 3.9997*10^-3 g/cm3. To get the mass you multiply 3.9997*10^-3 and
Kokana
250cm3 and get the mass as .999925, with significant figures the answer is 1.0 grams
Kokana
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and Bismuth
faith Reply
What is d electronic configuration of for group 5
Miracle Reply
Can I know d electronic configuration of for group 5 elements
Miracle
2:5, 2:8:5, 2:8:8:5,...
Maxime
Thanks
Miracle
Pls what are d names of elements found in group 5
Miracle
define define. define
Muh Reply
what is enthalpy
Ayilaran Reply
total heat contents of the system is called enthalpy, it is state function.
Sajid
background of chemistry
Banji Reply
what is the hybridisation of carbon in formic acid?
Maham Reply
sp2 hybridization
Johnson
what is the first element
Josh Reply
HYDROGEN
Liklai
Element that has positive charge and its non metal Name the element
Liklai
helium
oga
sulphur
oga
hydrogen
Banji
account for the properties of organic compounds
mercy Reply
properties of organic compounds
mercy
what's the difference between molecules and compounds
Amha Reply
A compound can be a molecule however compounds must contain more than one element. For example ozone, O3 is a molecule but not a compound.
Justin
what is che? nd what is mistry?
Mukhtar
What's elixir?
EMEKA Reply
An Elixir is a substance held capable of changing base metals into Gold.
Nwafor
Give an example for each of the six groups of element
Francis Reply
what is chemistry
Hosanna Reply
chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the study of the composition, structure and behaviour of matter.
Johnson
chemistry is the study of the composition, properties, and interactions of matter
EMEKA
Which of the following orbitals are possible in an atom: 4d, 2d, 2f, and 6f?
kemar
4d and 6f
Justin
what are the properties of periodic? list an explain one.
Vincent Reply
Important of chemistry
Caring Reply
for making of drugs
Nwankwo

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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