# 5.3 Enthalpy  (Page 5/25)

 Page 5 / 25

## Using enthalpy of combustion

As [link] suggests, the combustion of gasoline is a highly exothermic process. Let us determine the approximate amount of heat produced by burning 1.00 L of gasoline, assuming the enthalpy of combustion of gasoline is the same as that of isooctane, a common component of gasoline. The density of isooctane is 0.692 g/mL.

## Solution

Starting with a known amount (1.00 L of isooctane), we can perform conversions between units until we arrive at the desired amount of heat or energy. The enthalpy of combustion of isooctane provides one of the necessary conversions. [link] gives this value as −5460 kJ per 1 mole of isooctane (C 8 H 18 ).

Using these data,

$1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1000\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{0.692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{114\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{-5460\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kJ}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}=-3.31\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\text{kJ}$

The combustion of 1.00 L of isooctane produces 33,100 kJ of heat. (This amount of energy is enough to melt 99.2 kg, or about 218 lbs, of ice.)

Note: If you do this calculation one step at a time, you would find:

$\begin{array}{l}\\ 1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}6.07\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}-3.31\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\text{kJ}\end{array}$

How much heat is produced by the combustion of 125 g of acetylene?

6.25 $×$ 10 3 kJ

## Emerging algae-based energy technologies (biofuels)

As reserves of fossil fuels diminish and become more costly to extract, the search is ongoing for replacement fuel sources for the future. Among the most promising biofuels are those derived from algae ( [link] ). The species of algae used are nontoxic, biodegradable, and among the world’s fastest growing organisms. About 50% of algal weight is oil, which can be readily converted into fuel such as biodiesel. Algae can yield 26,000 gallons of biofuel per hectare—much more energy per acre than other crops. Some strains of algae can flourish in brackish water that is not usable for growing other crops. Algae can produce biodiesel, biogasoline, ethanol, butanol, methane, and even jet fuel.

According to the US Department of Energy, only 39,000 square kilometers (about 0.4% of the land mass of the US or less than $\frac{1}{7}$ of the area used to grow corn) can produce enough algal fuel to replace all the petroleum-based fuel used in the US. The cost of algal fuels is becoming more competitive—for instance, the US Air Force is producing jet fuel from algae at a total cost of under \$5 per gallon. For more on algal fuel, see http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/feb/13/algae-solve-pentagon-fuel-problem. The process used to produce algal fuel is as follows: grow the algae (which use sunlight as their energy source and CO 2 as a raw material); harvest the algae; extract the fuel compounds (or precursor compounds); process as necessary (e.g., perform a transesterification reaction to make biodiesel); purify; and distribute ( [link] ).

What a homogenous mixture
Define homologous series
when iron is exposed to moisture and it rusts,the value of deltaG for the reaction is
what is chemistry
define aci according to Lewis
an acid is an electron pair acceptor according to lewis
Mary
What is a homogenous mixture
Allison
the third ionization energy of aluminium
name the allotrope of carbon used in gas masks
Discuss the synthesis of sucrose
What is a glycoside and discuss the formation
Ojiya
explain the transitioning of glucose molecules from Fischer projection of glucose to the Haworth projection
what is quantum
what are metalliod
hezekiah
Metalloids are substances having the characteristics of both metals and non-metals
Ngwesse
what is acid
Tobi
define acid according to lewis
Ryhanna
what is valency
The number of chemical bonds the atoms of a certain element can form.
kenicia
what is ionization energy?
ionization energy is qualitatively defined as the minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated neutral gaseous atom, molecule or io
Tobi
If a sample of neon gas at 25.00∘C and 0.500 atm is heated at a constant volume until the pressure is 0.850 atm, what must be the final temperature of the gas in Kelvin? Use −273.15∘C for absolute zero. Report your answer with three significant figures.
The final temperature of the gas in Kelvin is 506.855
Ngwesse
Define the term chemistry
alchemy
MLG
explain law of definite proportion
yes same idea
DEMGUE
wat?