<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Key concepts and summary

The transition metals are elements with partially filled d orbitals, located in the d -block of the periodic table. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. The type of chemistry used in the isolation of the elements from their ores depends upon the concentration of the element in its ore and the difficulty of reducing ions of the elements to the metals. Metals that are more active are more difficult to reduce.

Transition metals exhibit chemical behavior typical of metals. For example, they oxidize in air upon heating and react with elemental halogens to form halides. Those elements that lie above hydrogen in the activity series react with acids, producing salts and hydrogen gas. Oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of transition metal compounds in low oxidation states are basic. Halides and other salts are generally stable in water, although oxygen must be excluded in some cases. Most transition metals form a variety of stable oxidation states, allowing them to demonstrate a wide range of chemical reactivity.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements:

(a) Sc

(b) Ti

(c) Cr

(d) Fe

(e) Ru

(a) Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 1 ; (b) Ti: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 2 ; (c) Cr: [Ar]4 s 1 3 d 5 ; (d) Fe: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 6 ; (e) Ru: [Kr]5 s 2 4 d 6

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its ions:

(a) Ti

(b) Ti 2+

(c) Ti 3+

(d) Ti 4+

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its 3+ ions:

(a) La

(b) Sm

(c) Lu

(a) La: [Xe]6 s 2 5 d 1 , La 3+ : [Xe]; (b) Sm: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 6 , Sm 3+ : [Xe]4 f 5 ; (c) Lu: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 1 , Lu 3+ : [Xe]4 f 14

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Why are the lanthanoid elements not found in nature in their elemental forms?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following elements is most likely to be used to prepare La by the reduction of La 2 O 3 : Al, C, or Fe? Why?

Al is used because it is the strongest reducing agent and the only option listed that can provide sufficient driving force to convert La(III) into La.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent: VO 4 3 , CrO 4 2− , or MnO 4 ?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following elements is most likely to form an oxide with the formula MO 3 : Zr, Nb, or Mo?

Mo

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The following reactions all occur in a blast furnace. Which of these are redox reactions?

(a) 3Fe 2 O 3 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 2Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(b) Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 3FeO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(c) FeO ( s ) + CO ( g ) Fe ( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

(d) C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g )

(e) C ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2CO ( g )

(f) CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(g) CaO ( s ) + SiO 2 ( s ) CaSiO 3 ( l )

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Why is the formation of slag useful during the smelting of iron?

The CaSiO 3 slag is less dense than the molten iron, so it can easily be separated. Also, the floating slag layer creates a barrier that prevents the molten iron from exposure to O 2 , which would oxidize the Fe back to Fe 2 O 3 .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Would you expect an aqueous manganese(VII) oxide solution to have a pH greater or less than 7.0? Justify your answer.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what is resonance energy
Clevin Reply
what does it mean when we say that a 200-mL sample and 400-mL sample of a solution of salt have the same molarity? In what ways are the two samples identical? In what ways are these two samples different?
Maynard Reply
separation techniques
Maryam Reply
what is a matter
Maryam
What are the natural phenomenon that affects kinetic energy
Sunbomustaphar Reply
What is Saturated solution
Bosede Reply
A solution in which no more solute can dissolve. The amount of solute will depend on the temperature
Paul
ammonia
Michael Reply
What is mixture
Abba Reply
what is a catalyst
Esimone Reply
first fifty elements
Nana Reply
what is a solute
sarima Reply
What is bond angle and how to calculate bond angle between atoms
Joseph Reply
what is the difference between spontaneous reaction and exothermic reaction
Ajayi Reply
iupac
Oba Reply
cao+h2o we get
Kuwer Reply
matter is made up of no of molecules
Kuwer
Hydrogen Phosphate
William Reply

Get the best Chemistry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask