<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Distinguish between spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes
  • Describe the dispersal of matter and energy that accompanies certain spontaneous processes

In this section, consider the differences between two types of changes in a system: Those that occur spontaneously and those that occur by force. In doing so, we’ll gain an understanding as to why some systems are naturally inclined to change in one direction under certain conditions and how relatively quickly or slowly that natural change proceeds. We’ll also gain insight into how the spontaneity of a process affects the distribution of energy and matter within the system.

Spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes

Processes have a natural tendency to occur in one direction under a given set of conditions. Water will naturally flow downhill, but uphill flow requires outside intervention such as the use of a pump. Iron exposed to the earth’s atmosphere will corrode, but rust is not converted to iron without intentional chemical treatment. A spontaneous process    is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process    , on the other hand, will not take place unless it is “driven” by the continual input of energy from an external source. A process that is spontaneous in one direction under a particular set of conditions is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. At room temperature and typical atmospheric pressure, for example, ice will spontaneously melt, but water will not spontaneously freeze.

The spontaneity of a process is not correlated to the speed of the process. A spontaneous change may be so rapid that it is essentially instantaneous or so slow that it cannot be observed over any practical period of time. To illustrate this concept, consider the decay of radioactive isotopes, a topic more thoroughly treated in the chapter on nuclear chemistry. Radioactive decay is by definition a spontaneous process in which the nuclei of unstable isotopes emit radiation as they are converted to more stable nuclei. All the decay processes occur spontaneously, but the rates at which different isotopes decay vary widely. Technetium-99m is a popular radioisotope for medical imaging studies that undergoes relatively rapid decay and exhibits a half-life of about six hours. Uranium-238 is the most abundant isotope of uranium, and its decay occurs much more slowly, exhibiting a half-life of more than four billion years ( [link] ).

A graph of two lines is shown where the y-axis is labeled, “amount of isotope remaining ( percent sign ),” and has values zero through one hundred, in increments of ten, written along the axis. The x-axis is labeled, “time ( days )” and has values zero through seven, in increments of one, written along the axis. The first graph, drawn with a blue line, begins at the top left value of one hundred on the y-axis and zero on the x-axis and falls steeply over the first three minutes, then the graphed line becomes almost horizontal until it reaches seven minutes on the x-axis. The second graph, drawn in red, begins at the same point as the first, but remains perfectly horizontal with no change along the y-axis. A legend labels the red line as, “U dash 238,” and the blue line as,
Both U-238 and Tc-99m undergo spontaneous radioactive decay, but at drastically different rates. Over the course of one week, essentially all of a Tc-99m sample and none of a U-238 sample will have decayed.

As another example, consider the conversion of diamond into graphite ( [link] ).

C ( s , diamond ) C ( s , graphite )

The phase diagram for carbon indicates that graphite is the stable form of this element under ambient atmospheric pressure, while diamond is the stable allotrope at very high pressures, such as those present during its geologic formation. Thermodynamic calculations of the sort described in the last section of this chapter indicate that the conversion of diamond to graphite at ambient pressure occurs spontaneously, yet diamonds are observed to exist, and persist, under these conditions. Though the process is spontaneous under typical ambient conditions, its rate is extremely slow, and so for all practical purposes diamonds are indeed “forever.” Situations such as these emphasize the important distinction between the thermodynamic and the kinetic aspects of a process. In this particular case, diamonds are said to be thermodynamically unstable but kinetically stable under ambient conditions.

Questions & Answers

calculate the mass in gram of NaOH present in 250cm3 of 0.1mol/dm3 of its solution
Omego Reply
The mass is 1.0grams. First you multiply the molecular weight and molarity which is 39.997g/mol x 0.1mol/dm3= 3.9997g/dm3. Then you convert dm3 to cm3. 1dm3 =1000cm3. In this case you would divide 3.9997 by 1000 which would give you 3.9997*10^-3 g/cm3. To get the mass you multiply 3.9997*10^-3 and
Kokana
250cm3 and get the mass as .999925, with significant figures the answer is 1.0 grams
Kokana
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and Bismuth
faith Reply
What is d electronic configuration of for group 5
Miracle Reply
Can I know d electronic configuration of for group 5 elements
Miracle
2:5, 2:8:5, 2:8:8:5,...
Maxime
Thanks
Miracle
Pls what are d names of elements found in group 5
Miracle
define define. define
Muh Reply
what is enthalpy
Ayilaran Reply
total heat contents of the system is called enthalpy, it is state function.
Sajid
background of chemistry
Banji Reply
what is the hybridisation of carbon in formic acid?
Maham Reply
sp2 hybridization
Johnson
what is the first element
Josh Reply
HYDROGEN
Liklai
Element that has positive charge and its non metal Name the element
Liklai
helium
oga
sulphur
oga
hydrogen
Banji
account for the properties of organic compounds
mercy Reply
properties of organic compounds
mercy
what's the difference between molecules and compounds
Amha Reply
A compound can be a molecule however compounds must contain more than one element. For example ozone, O3 is a molecule but not a compound.
Justin
what is che? nd what is mistry?
Mukhtar
What's elixir?
EMEKA Reply
An Elixir is a substance held capable of changing base metals into Gold.
Nwafor
Give an example for each of the six groups of element
Francis Reply
what is chemistry
Hosanna Reply
chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the study of the composition, structure and behaviour of matter.
Johnson
chemistry is the study of the composition, properties, and interactions of matter
EMEKA
Which of the following orbitals are possible in an atom: 4d, 2d, 2f, and 6f?
kemar
4d and 6f
Justin
what are the properties of periodic? list an explain one.
Vincent Reply
Important of chemistry
Caring Reply
for making of drugs
Nwankwo
Practice Key Terms 2

Get the best Chemistry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask