# 14.3 Relative strengths of acids and bases  (Page 12/18)

 Page 12 / 18

Are the concentrations of hydronium ion and hydroxide ion in a solution of an acid or a base in water directly proportional or inversely proportional? Explain your answer.

What two common assumptions can simplify calculation of equilibrium concentrations in a solution of a weak acid?

1. Assume that the change in initial concentration of the acid as the equilibrium is established can be neglected, so this concentration can be assumed constant and equal to the initial value of the total acid concentration. 2. Assume we can neglect the contribution of water to the equilibrium concentration of H 3 O + .

What two common assumptions can simplify calculation of equilibrium concentrations in a solution of a weak base?

Which of the following will increase the percent of NH 3 that is converted to the ammonium ion in water (Hint: Use LeChâtelier’s principle.)?

(c) addition of NH 4 Cl

Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water?

What is the effect on the concentrations of ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}},$ HNO 2 , and OH when the following are added to a solution of KNO 2 in water:

(a) HCl

(b) HNO 2

(c) NaOH

(d) NaCl

(e) KNO

The equation for the equilibrium is:
${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⇌\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{HNO}}_{2}\left(aq\right)+{\text{OH}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)$

(a) Adding HCl will add H 3 O + ions, which will then react with the OH ions, lowering their concentration. The equilibrium will shift to the right, increasing the concentration of HNO 2 , and decreasing the concentration of ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}$ ions. (b) Adding HNO 2 increases the concentration of HNO 2 and shifts the equilibrium to the left, increasing the concentration of ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}$ ions and decreasing the concentration of OH ions. (c) Adding NaOH adds OH ions, which shifts the equilibrium to the left, increasing the concentration of ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}$ ions and decreasing the concentrations of HNO 2 . (d) Adding NaCl has no effect on the concentrations of the ions. (e) Adding KNO 2 adds ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}$ ions and shifts the equilibrium to the right, increasing the HNO 2 and OH ion concentrations.

What is the effect on the concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydronium ion, and fluoride ion when the following are added to separate solutions of hydrofluoric acid?

(a) HCl

(b) KF

(c) NaCl

(d) KOH

(e) HF

The equation for the equilibrium is:
$\text{HF}\left(aq\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⇌\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{\text{+}}\left(aq\right)+{\text{F}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)$

Why is the hydronium ion concentration in a solution that is 0.10 M in HCl and 0.10 M in HCOOH determined by the concentration of HCl?

This is a case in which the solution contains a mixture of acids of different ionization strengths. In solution, the HCO 2 H exists primarily as HCO 2 H molecules because the ionization of the weak acid is suppressed by the strong acid. Therefore, the HCO 2 H contributes a negligible amount of hydronium ions to the solution. The stronger acid, HCl, is the dominant producer of hydronium ions because it is completely ionized. In such a solution, the stronger acid determines the concentration of hydronium ions, and the ionization of the weaker acid is fixed by the [H 3 O + ] produced by the stronger acid.

what is a balanced equation 4 trioxonitrate (V)acid and sodium hydroxide?
proved ur Worth: If A is a of trioxonitrate(V)acid,HNO3' of unknown concentration .B is a standard solution of sodium hydroxide containing 4.00g per dm cube of solution.25cm cube portions solution B required an average of 24.00cm cube of solution A for neutralization,using 2 drops of methyl orange.
Marcel
calculate the concentration of solution B in moles per dm cube
Marcel
calculate the concentration of solution A and B in moles per DM cube
Marcel
finally calculate the concentration in g/dm cube of HNO3 in solution A (H=1,N=14,O=16,Na=23)
Marcel
calculate the standard enthalpy of formation for propane(C3H8) from the following data; 1), C3H8+5O2->3CO2+4H2O; -222.0kJ/mol 2), C+O2->CO2;-395.5kJ/mol 3),H2+O->H2O; 285.8kJ/mol
Josephine
let eventually of formation of propane = X X + (-222)=3×(-395.5)+4×(-286) rearrange to find X
Paul
wat is electrolysis?
it is the chemical decomposition of a substance when electric current is passed through it either in molten form or aqueous solution
Nuru
list the side effect of chemical industries
how do you ionise an atom
many ways ,but one of them is when the atom becomes heated to a certain temperature the surface electron becomes too energetic and leaves the atom because the attraction between the nucleus and the electron becomes overpowered by the energetic eletron
sunday
also hitting of two atoms can cause transfer of surface electrons
sunday
and when this transfers occur the atom becomes ionised
sunday
who is doing Cape chemistry tomorrow?
What is hybridization
the mix between different breeds of species in one
Jared
it is the blending of orbitals.
stanley
the mixing of orbital
caramel
are covalent bonds influenced by factors such as temperature and pressure?
what is catalyst used for mirror test
when an atom looses electron, what does it become?
it's oxidized and called an ion
Anora
thanks
Abdullahi
Now, I get it
Abdullahi
cation
Anora
can you give an example please, if you don't mind
Abdullahi
a positive ion,become positively charged/a cation.
Janis
sodium plus one is simple cation is exmpl
ajmal
Taking Sodium as example..... it carries a positive charge which means it is positively charged.....when it gains an electron, it is reduced cuz an electron is negatively charged.....also when an atom looses an electron, it becomes positively charged and when it gains, it becomes negatively charged.
Nuru
typically, ionization is the process where an atom looses or gains electron(s) to form ion(s) either a positively or negatively
Nuru
what is copper
just an element
Power
Cu
daniel
Why is water a single covalent bond?
nitrogen is a gas whereas phosphorus is solid .Explain.
can you explain what you are needing it now better than maybe I'm just not interpreting it what you're needing to know
Alex
cool nitrogen down to around negative 270 °F and it will be solid. now they are both solid
daniel
they are different elements and dats how they are pal.....check the periodic table
Nuru
Nitrogen is a diatomic molecule with relatively weak van de waals forces between the molecules. These forces are overcome when the solid melts or liquid evaporates. Phosphorus forms larger molecules consisting of four phosphorus atoms in a tetradedral shape. The intermolecular forces are stronger
Paul
whats a base
A base is a substance which will neutralize an acid to yield salt and water only
Zainab
base is a substance that produces OH(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are in water and are completely dislocated. Therefore weak base ionize slightly...
Roy
a base is a substance that neutralise and acid to form salt and water
Daksalma
write electrolysis of bright solution using either carbon or platinum and write the reaction at the anode or at the cathode
what is the H3O of a solution with the pH of 2.5
pH<7, therefore there are only H3O+HX3OX+particles in the solution. [H3O+]=10−pH=10−6.99=1.02⋅10−7[HX3OX+]=10−pH=10−6.99=1.02⋅10−7 When the pH is smaller than 6 or greater than 8, one will not notice the difference, but here it is logarithmically speaking  and I'll give you another one if this is ki
Alex
Alex
When the pH is smaller than 6 or greater than 8, one will not notice the difference, but here it is logarithmically speaking
Alex
sorry I don't know why that sent again
Alex
We have [H3O+]=10−pH=10−6.99=1.02⋅10−7[HX3OX+]=10−pH=10−6.99=1.02⋅10−7 and [OH−]=10−pOH=10−7.01=9.77⋅10−8[OHX−]=10−pOH=10−7.01=9.77⋅10−8.  Because of H3O++OH−⟶2H2OHX3OX++OHX−⟶2HX2O we are left with [H3O+]=1.02⋅10−7−9.77⋅10−8=4.6⋅10−9
Alex
why Rutherford uses the gold foil instead of other metals?