# 1.5 Exponential and logarithmic functions  (Page 6/17)

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Compare the relative severity of a magnitude $8.4$ earthquake with a magnitude $7.4$ earthquake.

The magnitude $8.4$ earthquake is roughly $10$ times as severe as the magnitude $7.4$ earthquake.

## Hyperbolic functions

The hyperbolic functions are defined in terms of certain combinations of ${e}^{x}$ and ${e}^{\text{−}x}.$ These functions arise naturally in various engineering and physics applications, including the study of water waves and vibrations of elastic membranes. Another common use for a hyperbolic function is the representation of a hanging chain or cable, also known as a catenary ( [link] ). If we introduce a coordinate system so that the low point of the chain lies along the $y$ -axis, we can describe the height of the chain in terms of a hyperbolic function. First, we define the hyperbolic functions    .

## Definition

Hyperbolic cosine

$\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{{e}^{x}+{e}^{\text{−}x}}{2}$

Hyperbolic sine

$\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{{e}^{x}-{e}^{\text{−}x}}{2}$

Hyperbolic tangent

$\text{tanh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}{\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}=\frac{{e}^{x}-{e}^{\text{−}x}}{{e}^{x}+{e}^{\text{−}x}}$

Hyperbolic cosecant

$\text{csch}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{1}{\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}=\frac{2}{{e}^{x}-{e}^{\text{−}x}}$

Hyperbolic secant

$\text{sech}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{1}{\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}=\frac{2}{{e}^{x}+{e}^{\text{−}x}}$

Hyperbolic cotangent

$\text{coth}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x=\frac{\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}{\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x}=\frac{{e}^{x}+{e}^{\text{−}x}}{{e}^{x}-{e}^{\text{−}x}}$

The name cosh rhymes with “gosh,” whereas the name sinh is pronounced “cinch.” Tanh , sech , csch , and coth are pronounced “tanch,” “seech,” “coseech,” and “cotanch,” respectively.

Using the definition of $\text{cosh}\left(x\right)$ and principles of physics, it can be shown that the height of a hanging chain, such as the one in [link] , can be described by the function $h\left(x\right)=a\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{cosh}\left(x\text{/}a\right)+c$ for certain constants $a$ and $c.$

But why are these functions called hyperbolic functions ? To answer this question, consider the quantity ${\text{cosh}}^{2}t-{\text{sinh}}^{2}t.$ Using the definition of $\text{cosh}$ and $\text{sinh},$ we see that

${\text{cosh}}^{2}t-{\text{sinh}}^{2}t=\frac{{e}^{2t}+2+{e}^{-2t}}{4}-\frac{{e}^{2t}-2+{e}^{-2t}}{4}=1.$

This identity is the analog of the trigonometric identity ${\text{cos}}^{2}t+{\text{sin}}^{2}t=1.$ Here, given a value $t,$ the point $\left(x,y\right)=\left(\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}t,\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}t\right)$ lies on the unit hyperbola ${x}^{2}-{y}^{2}=1$ ( [link] ).

## Graphs of hyperbolic functions

To graph $\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$ and $\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x,$ we make use of the fact that both functions approach $\left(1\text{/}2\right){e}^{x}$ as $x\to \infty ,$ since ${e}^{\text{−}x}\to 0$ as $x\to \infty .$ As $x\to \text{−}\infty ,\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$ approaches $1\text{/}2{e}^{\text{−}x},$ whereas $\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$ approaches $-1\text{/}2{e}^{\text{−}x}.$ Therefore, using the graphs of $1\text{/}2{e}^{x},1\text{/}2{e}^{\text{−}x},$ and $\text{−}1\text{/}2{e}^{\text{−}x}$ as guides, we graph $\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$ and $\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x.$ To graph $\text{tanh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x,$ we use the fact that $\text{tanh}\left(0\right)=1,-1<\text{tanh}\left(x\right)<1$ for all $x,\text{tanh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\to 1$ as $x\to \infty ,$ and $\text{tanh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\to \text{−}1$ as $x\to \text{−}\infty .$ The graphs of the other three hyperbolic functions can be sketched using the graphs of $\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x,\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x,$ and $\text{tanh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$ ( [link] ).

## Identities involving hyperbolic functions

The identity ${\text{cosh}}^{2}t-{\text{sinh}}^{2}t,$ shown in [link] , is one of several identities involving the hyperbolic functions, some of which are listed next. The first four properties follow easily from the definitions of hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine. Except for some differences in signs, most of these properties are analogous to identities for trigonometric functions.

## Rule: identities involving hyperbolic functions

1. $\text{cosh}\left(\text{−}x\right)=\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$
2. $\text{sinh}\left(\text{−}x\right)=\text{−}\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x$
3. $\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x+\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x={e}^{x}$
4. $\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x-\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x={e}^{\text{−}x}$
5. ${\text{cosh}}^{2}x-{\text{sinh}}^{2}x=1$
6. $1-{\text{tanh}}^{2}x={\text{sech}}^{2}x$
7. ${\text{coth}}^{2}x-1={\text{csch}}^{2}x$
8. $\text{sinh}\left(x±y\right)=\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}y±\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}y$
9. $\text{cosh}\left(x±y\right)=\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{cosh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}y±\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}x\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{sinh}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}y$

#### Questions & Answers

why n does not equal -1
ask a complete question if you want a complete answer.
Andrew
I agree with Andrew
Bg
f (x) = a is a function. It's a constant function.
proof the formula integration of udv=uv-integration of vdu.?
Find derivative (2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2
no x=2 is not a function, as there is nothing that's changing.
are you sure sir? please make it sure and reply please. thanks a lot sir I'm grateful.
The
i mean can we replace the roles of x and y and call x=2 as function
The
if x =y and x = 800 what is y
y=800
800
Bg
how do u factor the numerator?
Nonsense, you factor numbers
Antonio
You can factorize the numerator of an expression. What's the problem there? here's an example. f(x)=((x^2)-(y^2))/2 Then numerator is x squared minus y squared. It's factorized as (x+y)(x-y). so the overall function becomes : ((x+y)(x-y))/2
The
The problem is the question, is not a problem where it is, but what it is
Antonio
I think you should first know the basics man: PS
Vishal
Yes, what factorization is
Antonio
Antonio bro is x=2 a function?
The
Yes, and no.... Its a function if for every x, y=2.... If not is a single value constant
Antonio
you could define it as a constant function if you wanted where a function of "y" defines x f(y) = 2 no real use to doing that though
zach
Why y, if domain its usually defined as x, bro, so you creates confusion
Antonio
Its f(x) =y=2 for every x
Antonio
Yes but he said could you put x = 2 as a function you put y = 2 as a function
zach
F(y) in this case is not a function since for every value of y you have not a single point but many ones, so there is not f(y)
Antonio
x = 2 defined as a function of f(y) = 2 says for every y x will equal 2 this silly creates a vertical line and is equivalent to saying x = 2 just in a function notation as the user above asked. you put f(x) = 2 this means for every x y is 2 this creates a horizontal line and is not equivalent
zach
The said x=2 and that 2 is y
Antonio
that 2 is not y, y is a variable 2 is a constant
zach
So 2 is defined as f(x) =2
Antonio
No y its constant =2
Antonio
what variable does that function define
zach
the function f(x) =2 takes every input of x within it's domain and gives 2 if for instance f:x -> y then for every x, y =2 giving a horizontal line this is NOT equivalent to the expression x = 2
zach
Yes true, y=2 its a constant, so a line parallel to y axix as function of y
Antonio
Sorry x=2
Antonio
And you are right, but os not a function of x, its a function of y
Antonio
As function of x is meaningless, is not a finction
Antonio
yeah you mean what I said in my first post, smh
zach
I mean (0xY) +x = 2 so y can be as you want, the result its 2 every time
Antonio
OK you can call this "function" on a set {2}, but its a single value function, a constant
Antonio
well as long as you got there eventually
zach
volume between cone z=√(x^2+y^2) and plane z=2
Fatima
It's an integral easy
Antonio
V=1/3 h π (R^2+r2+ r*R(
Antonio
How do we find the horizontal asymptote of a function using limits?
Easy lim f(x) x-->~ =c
Antonio
solutions for combining functions
what is a function? f(x)
one that is one to one, one that passes the vertical line test
Andrew
It's a law f() that to every point (x) on the Domain gives a single point in the codomain f(x)=y
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
restate the problem. and I will look. ty
is x=2 a function?
The
What is limit
it's the value a function will take while approaching a particular value
Dan
don ger it
Jeremy
what is a limit?
Dlamini
it is the value the function approaches as the input approaches that value.
Andrew
Thanx
Dlamini
Its' complex a limit It's a metrical and topological natural question... approaching means nothing in math
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
3y^2*y' + 2xy^3 + 3y^2y'x^2 = 0 sub in x = 2, and y = 1, isolate y'
what is implicit of y³+x²y³=5 at (2,1)
tel mi about a function. what is it?
Jeremy
A function it's a law, that for each value in the domaon associate a single one in the codomain
Antonio
function is a something which another thing depends upon to take place. Example A son depends on his father. meaning here is the father is function of the son. let the father be y and the son be x. the we say F(X)=Y.
Bg
yes the son on his father
pascal
a function is equivalent to a machine. this machine makes x to create y. thus, y is dependent upon x to be produced. note x is an independent variable
moe
x or y those not matter is just to represent.
Bg