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Using the properties of the definite integral

Use the properties of the definite integral to express the definite integral of f ( x ) = −3 x 3 + 2 x + 2 over the interval [ −2 , 1 ] as the sum of three definite integrals.

Using integral notation, we have −2 1 ( −3 x 3 + 2 x + 2 ) d x . We apply properties 3. and 5. to get

−2 1 ( −3 x 3 + 2 x + 2 ) d x = −2 1 −3 x 3 d x + −2 1 2 x d x + −2 1 2 d x = −3 −2 1 x 3 d x + 2 −2 1 x d x + −2 1 2 d x .
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Use the properties of the definite integral to express the definite integral of f ( x ) = 6 x 3 4 x 2 + 2 x 3 over the interval [ 1 , 3 ] as the sum of four definite integrals.

6 1 3 x 3 d x 4 1 3 x 2 d x + 2 1 3 x d x 1 3 3 d x

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Using the properties of the definite integral

If it is known that 0 8 f ( x ) d x = 10 and 0 5 f ( x ) d x = 5 , find the value of 5 8 f ( x ) d x .

By property 6.,

a b f ( x ) d x = a c f ( x ) d x + c b f ( x ) d x .

Thus,

0 8 f ( x ) d x = 0 5 f ( x ) d x + 5 8 f ( x ) d x 10 = 5 + 5 8 f ( x ) d x 5 = 5 8 f ( x ) d x .
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If it is known that 1 5 f ( x ) d x = −3 and 2 5 f ( x ) d x = 4 , find the value of 1 2 f ( x ) d x .

−7

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Comparison properties of integrals

A picture can sometimes tell us more about a function than the results of computations. Comparing functions by their graphs as well as by their algebraic expressions can often give new insight into the process of integration. Intuitively, we might say that if a function f ( x ) is above another function g ( x ) , then the area between f ( x ) and the x -axis is greater than the area between g ( x ) and the x -axis. This is true depending on the interval over which the comparison is made. The properties of definite integrals are valid whether a < b , a = b , or a > b . The following properties, however, concern only the case a b , and are used when we want to compare the sizes of integrals.

Comparison theorem

  1. If f ( x ) 0 for a x b , then
    a b f ( x ) d x 0 .
  2. If f ( x ) g ( x ) for a x b , then
    a b f ( x ) d x a b g ( x ) d x .
  3. If m and M are constants such that m f ( x ) M for a x b , then
    m ( b a ) a b f ( x ) d x M ( b a ) .

Comparing two functions over a given interval

Compare f ( x ) = 1 + x 2 and g ( x ) = 1 + x over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] .

Graphing these functions is necessary to understand how they compare over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] . Initially, when graphed on a graphing calculator, f ( x ) appears to be above g ( x ) everywhere. However, on the interval [ 0 , 1 ] , the graphs appear to be on top of each other. We need to zoom in to see that, on the interval [ 0 , 1 ] , g ( x ) is above f ( x ) . The two functions intersect at x = 0 and x = 1 ( [link] ).

A graph of the function f(x) = sqrt(1 + x^2) in red and g(x) = sqrt(1 + x) in blue over [-2, 3]. The function f(x) appears above g(x) except over the interval [0,1]. A second, zoomed-in graph shows this interval more clearly.
(a) The function f ( x ) appears above the function g ( x ) except over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] (b) Viewing the same graph with a greater zoom shows this more clearly.

We can see from the graph that over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] , g ( x ) f ( x ) . Comparing the integrals over the specified interval [ 0 , 1 ] , we also see that 0 1 g ( x ) d x 0 1 f ( x ) d x ( [link] ). The thin, red-shaded area shows just how much difference there is between these two integrals over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] .

A graph showing the functions f(x) = sqrt(1 + x^2) and g(x) = sqrt(1 + x) over [-3, 3]. The area under g(x) in quadrant one over [0,1] is shaded. The area under g(x) and f(x) is included in this shaded area. The second, zoomed-in graph shows more clearly that equality between the functions only holds at the endpoints.
(a) The graph shows that over the interval [ 0 , 1 ] , g ( x ) f ( x ) , where equality holds only at the endpoints of the interval. (b) Viewing the same graph with a greater zoom shows this more clearly.
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Average value of a function

We often need to find the average of a set of numbers, such as an average test grade. Suppose you received the following test scores in your algebra class: 89, 90, 56, 78, 100, and 69. Your semester grade is your average of test scores and you want to know what grade to expect. We can find the average by adding all the scores and dividing by the number of scores. In this case, there are six test scores. Thus,

Questions & Answers

questions solve y=sin x
Obi Reply
Solve it for what?
Tim
you have to apply the function arcsin in both sides and you get arcsin y = acrsin (sin x) the the function arcsin and function sin cancel each other so the ecuation becomes arcsin y = x you can also write x= arcsin y
Ioana
what is the question ? what is the answer?
Suman
there is an equation that should be solve for x
Ioana
ok solve it
Suman
are you saying y is of sin(x) y=sin(x)/sin of both sides to solve for x... therefore y/sin =x
Tyron
or solve for sin(x) via the unit circle
Tyron
what is unit circle
Suman
a circle whose radius is 1.
Darnell
the unit circle is covered in pre cal...and or trigonometry. it is the multipcation table of upper level mathematics.
Tyron
what is function?
Ryan Reply
A set of points in which every x value (domain) corresponds to exactly one y value (range)
Tim
what is lim (x,y)~(0,0) (x/y)
NIKI Reply
limited of x,y at 0,0 is nt defined
Alswell
But using L'Hopitals rule is x=1 is defined
Alswell
Could U explain better boss?
emmanuel
value of (x/y) as (x,y) tends to (0,0) also whats the value of (x+y)/(x^2+y^2) as (x,y) tends to (0,0)
NIKI
can we apply l hospitals rule for function of two variables
NIKI
why n does not equal -1
K.kupar Reply
ask a complete question if you want a complete answer.
Andrew
I agree with Andrew
Bg
f (x) = a is a function. It's a constant function.
Darnell Reply
proof the formula integration of udv=uv-integration of vdu.?
Bg Reply
Find derivative (2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2
Rasheed Reply
no x=2 is not a function, as there is nothing that's changing.
Vivek Reply
are you sure sir? please make it sure and reply please. thanks a lot sir I'm grateful.
The
i mean can we replace the roles of x and y and call x=2 as function
The
if x =y and x = 800 what is y
Joys Reply
y=800
Gift
800
Bg
how do u factor the numerator?
Drew Reply
Nonsense, you factor numbers
Antonio
You can factorize the numerator of an expression. What's the problem there? here's an example. f(x)=((x^2)-(y^2))/2 Then numerator is x squared minus y squared. It's factorized as (x+y)(x-y). so the overall function becomes : ((x+y)(x-y))/2
The
The problem is the question, is not a problem where it is, but what it is
Antonio
I think you should first know the basics man: PS
Vishal
Yes, what factorization is
Antonio
Antonio bro is x=2 a function?
The
Yes, and no.... Its a function if for every x, y=2.... If not is a single value constant
Antonio
you could define it as a constant function if you wanted where a function of "y" defines x f(y) = 2 no real use to doing that though
zach
Why y, if domain its usually defined as x, bro, so you creates confusion
Antonio
Its f(x) =y=2 for every x
Antonio
Yes but he said could you put x = 2 as a function you put y = 2 as a function
zach
F(y) in this case is not a function since for every value of y you have not a single point but many ones, so there is not f(y)
Antonio
x = 2 defined as a function of f(y) = 2 says for every y x will equal 2 this silly creates a vertical line and is equivalent to saying x = 2 just in a function notation as the user above asked. you put f(x) = 2 this means for every x y is 2 this creates a horizontal line and is not equivalent
zach
The said x=2 and that 2 is y
Antonio
that 2 is not y, y is a variable 2 is a constant
zach
So 2 is defined as f(x) =2
Antonio
No y its constant =2
Antonio
what variable does that function define
zach
the function f(x) =2 takes every input of x within it's domain and gives 2 if for instance f:x -> y then for every x, y =2 giving a horizontal line this is NOT equivalent to the expression x = 2
zach
Yes true, y=2 its a constant, so a line parallel to y axix as function of y
Antonio
Sorry x=2
Antonio
And you are right, but os not a function of x, its a function of y
Antonio
As function of x is meaningless, is not a finction
Antonio
yeah you mean what I said in my first post, smh
zach
I mean (0xY) +x = 2 so y can be as you want, the result its 2 every time
Antonio
OK you can call this "function" on a set {2}, but its a single value function, a constant
Antonio
well as long as you got there eventually
zach
2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2 solve this
femi
follow algebraic method. look under factoring numerator from Khan academy
moe
volume between cone z=√(x^2+y^2) and plane z=2
Kranthi Reply
answer please?
Fatima
It's an integral easy
Antonio
V=1/3 h π (R^2+r2+ r*R(
Antonio
How do we find the horizontal asymptote of a function using limits?
Lerato Reply
Easy lim f(x) x-->~ =c
Antonio
solutions for combining functions
Amna Reply
what is a function? f(x)
Jeremy Reply
one that is one to one, one that passes the vertical line test
Andrew
It's a law f() that to every point (x) on the Domain gives a single point in the codomain f(x)=y
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
restate the problem. and I will look. ty
jon Reply
is x=2 a function?
The
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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